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Gene Review

GLN3  -  Gln3p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Nitrogen regulatory protein GLN3, YER040W
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High impact information on GLN3

  • The binding of GLN3 to URE2 requires TOR-dependent phosphorylation of GLN3 [1].
  • Phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention of GLN3 are also dependent on the TOR effector TAP42, and are antagonized by the type-2A-related phosphatase SIT4 [1].
  • MSX-induced glutamine starvation caused nuclear localization and activation of the TOR-inhibited transcription factors GLN3, RTG1, and RTG3, all of which mediate glutamine synthesis [2].
  • This transcriptional response is partly mediated by the nutrient-sensitive transcription factors GLN3 and NIL1 (also named GAT1) [3].
  • In this study, we show that glucose also regulates Gln3 phosphorylation and subcellular localization, which is mediated by Snf1, the yeast homolog of AMP-dependent protein kinase and a cytoplasmic glucose sensor [4].

Biological context of GLN3


Anatomical context of GLN3

  • These data indicate the actin cytoskeleton is required for nuclear localization of Gln3 in response to limiting nitrogen but not rapamycin-treatment [9].
  • Analysis of these images by deconvolution microscopy suggests that Gln3 is concentrated in or associated with a highly structured system in the cytosol, one that is possibly vesicular in nature [10].

Associations of GLN3 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GLN3

  • Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that the GLN3 protein binds the nitrogen upstream activation sequence of GLN1, the gene encoding glutamine synthetase [7].
  • Phosphorylated Gln3 complexes with Ure2 and is sequestered in the cytoplasm [15].
  • A LexA-Gln3 fusion protein supported transcriptional activation when bound to one or more LexAp binding sites upstream of a minimal CYC1-derived promoter devoid of UAS elements [16].
  • This complex formation correlates with Gln3 being sequestered in the cytoplasm under conditions of excess nitrogen, where Gln3/Gat1-mediated transcription is minimal [17].

Enzymatic interactions of GLN3

  • Active Sit4 dephosphorylates Gln3, which can then localize to the nucleus and activate transcription [15].

Regulatory relationships of GLN3

  • The URE2 and GLN3 genes were also found to regulate the level of arginase activity [18].
  • Thus, NPR1 and BUL1/2 antagonistically control GLN3-dependent transcription, suggesting a role for regulated ubiquitination in the control of nutrient-responsive transcription [19].
  • In this report it is shown that the formation of this enzyme is dependent upon the functional GLN3 gene and that the response to nitrogen availability is under the control of the URE2 gene product [20].
  • Npr1 has been reported to negatively regulate nuclear localization of Gln3 in SD (ammonia)-grown cells [21].
  • During growth on a preferred nitrogen source like NH(4)(+), CIS2 expression is repressed through a mechanism involving (at least) the Gln3-binding protein Ure2/GdhCR [22].

Other interactions of GLN3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLN3

  • Combining data from growth tests, Northern blot analysis and Gln3 immunolocalization, we show that the Npr1 kinase is not a direct negative regulator of Gln3-dependent transcription [25].


  1. The TOR signalling pathway controls nuclear localization of nutrient-regulated transcription factors. Beck, T., Hall, M.N. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The TOR-controlled transcription activators GLN3, RTG1, and RTG3 are regulated in response to intracellular levels of glutamine. Crespo, J.L., Powers, T., Fowler, B., Hall, M.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Carbon- and nitrogen-quality signaling to translation are mediated by distinct GATA-type transcription factors. Kuruvilla, F.G., Shamji, A.F., Schreiber, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Convergence of TOR-nitrogen and Snf1-glucose signaling pathways onto Gln3. Bertram, P.G., Choi, J.H., Carvalho, J., Chan, T.F., Ai, W., Zheng, X.F. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The GLN3 gene product is required for transcriptional activation of allantoin system gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cooper, T.G., Ferguson, D., Rai, R., Bysani, N. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of the GATA factors Gln3p and Nil1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the expression of nitrogen-regulated genes. Stanbrough, M., Rowen, D.W., Magasanik, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequence and expression of GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger DNA-binding domain. Minehart, P.L., Magasanik, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. TOR modulates GCN4-dependent expression of genes turned on by nitrogen limitation. Valenzuela, L., Aranda, C., González, A. J. Bacteriol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Actin cytoskeleton is required for nuclear accumulation of Gln3 in response to nitrogen limitation but not rapamycin treatment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cox, K.H., Tate, J.J., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytoplasmic compartmentation of Gln3 during nitrogen catabolite repression and the mechanism of its nuclear localization during carbon starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cox, K.H., Tate, J.J., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of glutamine-repressible gene products by the GLN3 function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mitchell, A.P., Magasanik, B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Roles of URE2 and GLN3 in the proline utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xu, S., Falvey, D.A., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The GATA transcription factors GLN3 and GAT1 link TOR to salt stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Crespo, J.L., Daicho, K., Ushimaru, T., Hall, M.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Differing responses of Gat1 and Gln3 phosphorylation and localization to rapamycin and methionine sulfoximine treatment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kulkarni, A., Buford, T.D., Rai, R., Cooper, T.G. FEMS Yeast Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sit4 Phosphatase Is Active Irrespective of the Nitrogen Source Provided, and Gln3 Phosphorylation Levels Become Nitrogen Source-responsive in a sit4-deleted Strain. Tate, J.J., Feller, A., Dubois, E., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. G1n3p is capable of binding to UAS(NTR) elements and activating transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cunningham, T.S., Svetlov, V.V., Rai, R., Smart, W., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. In vivo specificity of Ure2 protection from heavy metal ion and oxidative cellular damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rai, R., Cooper, T.G. Yeast (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of nitrogen assimilation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: roles of the URE2 and GLN3 genes. Courchesne, W.E., Magasanik, B. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. NPR1 kinase and RSP5-BUL1/2 ubiquitin ligase control GLN3-dependent transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Crespo, J.L., Helliwell, S.B., Wiederkehr, C., Demougin, P., Fowler, B., Primig, M., Hall, M.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Asparaginase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GLN3/URE2 regulation of a periplasmic enzyme. Bon, E.P., Carvajal, E., Stanbrough, M., Rowen, D., Magasanik, B. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Ammonia-specific Regulation of Gln3 Localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Protein Kinase Npr1. Tate, J.J., Rai, R., Cooper, T.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Nitrogen-source regulation of yeast gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase synthesis involves the regulatory network including the GATA zinc-finger factors Gln3, Nil1/Gat1 and Gzf3. Springael, J.Y., Penninckx, M.J. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulatory circuit for responses of nitrogen catabolic gene expression to the GLN3 and DAL80 proteins and nitrogen catabolite repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Daugherty, J.R., Rai, R., el Berry, H.M., Cooper, T.G. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Gcn4 negatively regulates expression of genes subjected to nitrogen catabolite repression. Sosa, E., Aranda, C., Riego, L., Valenzuela, L., DeLuna, A., Cantú, J.M., González, A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Transduction of the Nitrogen Signal Activating Gln3-mediated Transcription Is Independent of Npr1 Kinase and Rsp5-Bul1/2 Ubiquitin Ligase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Feller, A., Boeckstaens, M., Marini, A.M., Dubois, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
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