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Gene Review

PUT1  -  proline dehydrogenase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: L3170, L9606.2, Proline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, Proline oxidase, YLR142W
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Disease relevance of PUT1


High impact information on PUT1

  • The Arabidopsis thaliana proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) is catalysing the first step in proline degradation [4].
  • Put3p is constitutively bound to the promoters of its target genes, PUT1 and PUT2, under all conditions studied but activates transcription to the maximum extent only in the absence of rich nitrogen sources and in the presence of proline (i.e., when proline serves as the sole source of nitrogen) [5].
  • The PUT1 and PUT2 genes encoding the enzymes of the proline utilization pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are induced by proline and activated by the product of the PUT3 gene [6].
  • Deletion analysis of the two PUT1 UASs showed that they were functionally independent and additive in producing maximal levels of gene expression [6].
  • By using a PUT1-lacZ gene fusion that makes a cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase, the regulation of the PUT1 gene was studied [7].

Biological context of PUT1

  • The PUT1 gene was mapped distal to the GAL2 gene on chromosome XII by tetrad analysis [8].
  • Comparison of PUT gene expression in cells grown in repressing or derepressing nitrogen sources, in the absence of the inducer proline, indicated that both PUT1 and PUT2 are regulated by nitrogen repression, although the effect on PUT2 is comparatively small [9].
  • The PUT1 DNA was present in a single copy in the yeast genome and encoded a transcript of ca. 1.5 kb [8].
  • The PUT1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, believed to encode proline oxidase, has been completely sequenced and contains an open reading frame capable of encoding a polypeptide of 476 amino acids in length [7].
  • Plasmids containing the PUT1 gene restored regulated levels of proline oxidase activity to put1 recipient strains [8].

Associations of PUT1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PUT1

  • Recessive mutations in URE2 elevated expression of the PUT1 and PUT2 genes 5- to 10-fold when cells were grown on a nitrogen-repressing medium [9].
  • A yeast strain carrying the previously identified put3 regulatory mutation that caused constitutive levels of proline oxidase activity was found to have sevenfold elevated PUT1 mRNA levels under noninducing conditions [8].
  • We found that Nil1p and Put3p, but not Gln3p, play major roles in rapamycin-induced PUT1 expression [13].
  • Molecular and genetic mapping positioned the cha4 locus 17 cM centromere proximal to put1 on chromosome XII [14].
  • We constructed a novel sake yeast strain by disrupting the PUT1 gene, which is required for L-proline utilization, and replacing the wild-type PRO1 allele with the pro1(D154N) allele [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PUT1

  • When cultured in liquid minimal medium, the proline-nonutilizing mutant containing the put1 mutation (proline oxidase-deficient) produced more intracellular proline, and increased the cell survival rate as compared to the wild-type strain after freezing and desiccation [16].


  1. A nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in proline metabolism, is upregulated by proline but downregulated by dehydration in Arabidopsis. Kiyosue, T., Yoshiba, Y., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K., Shinozaki, K. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation, DNA sequence analysis, and mutagenesis of a proline dehydrogenase gene (putA) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Straub, P.F., Reynolds, P.H., Althomsons, S., Mett, V., Zhu, Y., Shearer, G., Kohl, D.H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Tomato QM-like protein protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress by regulating intracellular proline levels. Chen, C., Wanduragala, S., Becker, D.F., Dickman, M.B. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Combinatorial control of Arabidopsis proline dehydrogenase transcription by specific heterodimerisation of bZIP transcription factors. Weltmeier, F., Ehlert, A., Mayer, C.S., Dietrich, K., Wang, X., Schütze, K., Alonso, R., Harter, K., Vicente-Carbajosa, J., Dröge-Laser, W. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The regulator of the yeast proline utilization pathway is differentially phosphorylated in response to the quality of the nitrogen source. Huang, H.L., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUT3 activator protein associates with proline-specific upstream activation sequences. Siddiqui, A.H., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: sequence, regulation, and mitochondrial localization of the PUT1 gene product. Wang, S.S., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of the cloned PUT1 gene. Wang, S.S., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Roles of URE2 and GLN3 in the proline utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xu, S., Falvey, D.A., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of proline and arginine metabolism on freezing stress of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Morita, Y., Nakamori, S., Takagi, H. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Reciprocal regulation of delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and proline dehydrogenase genes controls proline levels during and after osmotic stress in plants. Peng, Z., Lu, Q., Verma, D.P. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Proline catabolism by Pseudomonas putida: cloning, characterization, and expression of the put genes in the presence of root exudates. Vílchez, S., Molina, L., Ramos, C., Ramos, J.L. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Rapamycin treatment results in GATA factor-independent hyperphosphorylation of the proline utilization pathway activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saxena, D., Kannan, K.B., Brandriss, M.C. Eukaryotic Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Cha4p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates transcription via serine/threonine response elements. Holmberg, S., Schjerling, P. Genetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of L-proline on sake brewing and ethanol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Takagi, H., Takaoka, M., Kawaguchi, A., Kubo, Y. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Proline accumulation by mutation or disruption of the proline oxidase gene improves resistance to freezing and desiccation stresses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Takagi, H., Sakai, K., Morida, K., Nakamori, S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
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