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Gene Review

PUT2  -  1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, L-glutamate gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, P5C dehydrogenase, YHR037W
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Disease relevance of PUT2


High impact information on PUT2

  • We have developed an in vitro system in which the posttranslational import of Put2 (delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase), into yeast mitochondria is dependent on the addition of yeast postribosomal supernatant (PRS) [3].
  • When mRNA for a nuclear-encoded yeast mitochondrial matrix protein, Put2, was translated in a wheat germ cell-free system, import into posttranslationally added yeast mitochondria was negligible [3].
  • When grown on media containing urea and proline as the nitrogen source, put2-disrupted cells did not grow as well as WT cells and accumulated intracellular levels of P5C that were first detected in yeast cells and ROS [4].
  • Put3p is constitutively bound to the promoters of its target genes, PUT1 and PUT2, under all conditions studied but activates transcription to the maximum extent only in the absence of rich nitrogen sources and in the presence of proline (i.e., when proline serves as the sole source of nitrogen) [5].
  • PUT1 and PUT2 gene expression did not require the GLN3 activator protein for expression under either repressing or derepressing conditions [6].

Biological context of PUT2

  • AAP1 was physically mapped to chromosome VIII between PUT2 and CUP1 [7].
  • Here, we determined the effect of put2 disruption on yeast cell viability under freezing stress [8].
  • A 26-bp sequence containing this TATA box was critical to the expression of PUT2, since a deletion of this region completely abolished transcriptional activity of the gene under both inducing and noninducing conditions [9].
  • In heterologous as well as homologous gene fusions, the PUT2 UAS appeared to be responsible for uninduced as well as proline-induced levels of expression [9].
  • The PUT2 gene was isolated on a 6.5-kilobase insert of a recombinant DNA plasmid by functional complementation of a put2 (delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase-deficient) mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [10].

Associations of PUT2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of PUT2


Other interactions of PUT2

  • Recessive mutations in URE2 elevated expression of the PUT1 and PUT2 genes 5- to 10-fold when cells were grown on a nitrogen-repressing medium [6].
  • In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ability to use proline as a nitrogen source requires the Put3p transcriptional regulator, which turns on the expression of the proline utilization genes, PUT1 and PUT2, in the presence of the inducer proline and in the absence of preferred nitrogen sources [14].
  • Although located immediately adjacent to the PUT2 UAS, the TATA box did not appear to play a regulatory role, as indicated by the results of experiments in which it was replaced by the CYC7 TATA box [9].
  • Its identity was confirmed by a gene disruption technique in which the chromosomal PUT2+ gene was replaced by plasmid DNA carrying the put2 gene into which the S. cerevisiae HIS3+ gene had been inserted [10].


  1. A nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial Delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase and its potential role in protection from proline toxicity. Deuschle, K., Funck, D., Hellmann, H., Däschner, K., Binder, S., Frommer, W.B. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation, DNA sequence analysis, and mutagenesis of a proline dehydrogenase gene (putA) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Straub, P.F., Reynolds, P.H., Althomsons, S., Mett, V., Zhu, Y., Shearer, G., Kohl, D.H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. 70-kD heat shock-related protein is one of at least two distinct cytosolic factors stimulating protein import into mitochondria. Murakami, H., Pain, D., Blobel, G. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of the yeast acetyltransferase Mpr1 in oxidative stress: regulation of oxygen reactive species caused by a toxic proline catabolism intermediate. Nomura, M., Takagi, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. The regulator of the yeast proline utilization pathway is differentially phosphorylated in response to the quality of the nitrogen source. Huang, H.L., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Roles of URE2 and GLN3 in the proline utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xu, S., Falvey, D.A., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Isolation and characterization of AAP1. A gene encoding an alanine/arginine aminopeptidase in yeast. Caprioglio, D.R., Padilla, C., Werner-Washburne, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of proline and arginine metabolism on freezing stress of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Morita, Y., Nakamori, S., Takagi, H. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. A regulatory region responsible for proline-specific induction of the yeast PUT2 gene is adjacent to its TATA box. Siddiqui, A.H., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: analysis of the cloned PUT2 gene. Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Primary structure of the nuclear PUT2 gene involved in the mitochondrial pathway for proline utilization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Krzywicki, K.A., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Human liver glutamic gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase: structural relationship to the yeast enzyme. Hempel, J., Eckey, R., Berie, D., Romovacek, H., Agarwal, D.P., Goedde, H.W. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUT3 activator protein associates with proline-specific upstream activation sequences. Siddiqui, A.H., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Conformational changes play a role in regulating the activity of the proline utilization pathway-specific regulator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Des Etages, S.A., Saxena, D., Huang, H.L., Falvey, D.A., Barber, D., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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