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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Xanomeline: a novel muscarinic receptor agonist with functional selectivity for M1 receptors.

Xanomeline [3(3-hexyloxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-4-yl)-1,2,5,6-tetrahydro-1- methylpyridine] has been evaluated as a muscarinic receptor agonist. In vitro, xanomeline had high affinity for muscarinic receptors in brain homogenates, but had substantially less or no affinity for a number of other neurotransmitter receptors and uptake sites. In cells stably expressing genetic m1 receptors, xanomeline increased phospholipid hydrolysis in CHO, BHK and A9 L cells to 100, 72 and 55% of the nonselective agonist carbachol. In isolated tissues, xanomeline had high affinity for M1 receptors in the rabbit vas deferens (IC50 = 0.006 nM), low affinity for M2 receptors in guinea pig atria (EC50 = 3 microM), was a weak partial agonist in guinea pig ileum and was neither an agonist nor antagonist in guinea pig bladder. In vivo, xanomeline increased striatal levels of dopamine metabolites, presumably by acting at M1 heteroreceptors on dopamine neurons to increase dopamine release. In contrast, xanomeline had only a relatively small effect on acetylcholine levels in brain, indicating that it is devoid of actions at muscarinic autoreceptors. In the gastrointestinal tract, xanomeline inhibited small intestinal and colonic motility, but increased small intestinal transmural potential difference. In contrast to the nonselective muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, xanomeline did not produce salivation, tremor nor hypothermia; it did, however, increase heart rate. The present data are consistent with the interpretation that xanomeline is a novel muscarinic receptor agonist with functional selectivity for M1 muscarinic receptors both in vitro and in vivo.[1]


  1. Xanomeline: a novel muscarinic receptor agonist with functional selectivity for M1 receptors. Shannon, H.E., Bymaster, F.P., Calligaro, D.O., Greenwood, B., Mitch, C.H., Sawyer, B.D., Ward, J.S., Wong, D.T., Olesen, P.H., Sheardown, M.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
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