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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparison of immune functional parameters following in vitro exposure to natural and synthetic amphetamines.

The potential of synthetic and natural amphetamines to modulate cellular immune effector and regulatory mechanisms was evaluated in an in vitro exposure system. Murine splenic lymphocytes and elicited peritoneal macrophages were cultured with 0.0001-100 microM of amphetamine sulfate, methamphetamine hydrochloride, or the (S) or (R) isomers of cathione hydrochloride. T-lymphocyte regulatory function was assessed by quantitating the production of cytokines, and T-lymphocyte effector function was assessed by the induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). B-lymphocyte function was measured by proliferation, and natural immunity was assessed by quantitating basal and IL-2 augmented natural killer (NK) cell activity. None of the compounds tested had any direct effect on cellular viability. Exposure to amphetamine resulted in a significant suppression of IL-2, but not IL-4, production by T-lymphocytes, as well as a suppression of B-lymphocyte proliferation only at the highest amphetamine concentration examined. NK cell function was slightly suppressed by amphetamine exposure, but was enhanced by methamphetamine exposure. Conversely, exposure to either (S) or (R) isomers of cathinone resulted in stimulation of IL-2 production, B-lymphocyte proliferation, and CTL induction. No significant effect of cathione was noted on NK cell function. These data suggest that natural and synthetic amphetamines exhibit differential immunomodulatory activity following in vitro exposure.[1]


  1. Comparison of immune functional parameters following in vitro exposure to natural and synthetic amphetamines. House, R.V., Thomas, P.T., Bhargava, H.N. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. (1994) [Pubmed]
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