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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bisubstrates: substances that interact with both, renal contraluminal organic anion and organic cation transport systems. II. Zwitterionic substrates: dipeptides, cephalosporins, quinolone-carboxylate gyrase inhibitors and phosphamide thiazine carboxylates; nonionizable substrates: steroid hormones and cyclophosphamides.

In order to test what chemical structure is required for a substrate to interact not only with the contraluminal organic anion (p-aminohippurate, PAH) transporter, but also with the organic cation (N1-methylnicotinamide, NMeN, or tetraethylammonium, TEA) transporter, the stop-flow peritubular capillary perfusion method was applied and app. Ki values were evaluated. Zwitterionic hydrophobic dipeptides not only interact with PAH but also with NMeN transport although with lower inhibitory potency (Ki,PAH = 0.2-1.4; Ki,NMeN 6-14 mmol/l). Amongst the zwitterionic cephalosporins, which all inhibit PAH transport, the amino cephalosporin analogue cefadroxil was identified to interact also with NMeN transport (Ki,PAH = 3.0, Ki,NMeN = 11.2 mmol/l). All zwitterionic naphthyridine and oxochinoline gyrase inhibitors tested inhibit NMeN transport with app. Ki,NMeN values between 1.2 mmol/l and 4.7 mmol/l; the naphthyridine analogues show a good inhibitory potency against PAH transport (Ki,PAH approximately 0.4 mmol/l), the piperazine-containing quinolone analogues have a moderate inhibitory potency (Ki,PAH = 1.1-2.5 mmol/l) and the piperazine-containing pipemidic acid did not inhibit PAH transport at all. Zwitterionic thiazolidine carboxylate phosphamides also interact with both transporters (app. Ki,PAH approximately 3.0; app. Ki,NMeN approximately 18.0 mmol/l). The nonionizable oxo- and hydroxy-group-containing corticosteroid hormones also interact with the two transporters. (a) An OH group in position 21 is necessary for interaction with the PAH transporter, but not for interaction with the TEA transporter. (b) Introduction of an OH group in position 17 alpha abolishes interaction with the TEA transporter, but has different effects with the PAH transporter. (c) Introduction of an OH group in position 6 abolishes interaction with both, the PAH and the TEA transporter. (d) A change of the side-group in position 11 of corticosterone from -OH to -H to = O enhances interaction with the PAH transporter but has no effect on the interaction with the TEA transporter. Nonionizable 4- or 5-androstene analogues inhibit both transporters with app. Ki between 0.16 mmol/l and 0.64 mmol/l, if the steroids are soluble in a concentration greater than 1 mmol/l. Nonionizable oxazaphosphorins with more than one chloroethyl group interact with the PAH transporter with app. Ki between 0.84 mmol/l and 4.9 mmol/l and with the NMeN transporter with app. Ki between 3.2 mmol/l and 18.7 mmol/l. Thus a substrate interacts with both transporters if it is sufficiently hydrophobic, possesses acidic and/or electron-attracting plus basic and/or electron-donating groups, or possesses several electron-attracting nonionizable groups (O, OH, Cl). A certain spatial arrangement of the interacting groups seems to be necessary.[1]


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