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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

ethers     oxidane

Synonyms: UNKNOWN, Hydrol, Wasser, steam, water, ...
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Disease relevance of hydrogen oxide


Psychiatry related information on hydrogen oxide

  • Five patients with dialysis encephalopathy were transferred to deionized water; all died after a variable period, 4 of progressive dementia [6].
  • After overnight fasting, gallbladder volume was monitored every 4 min in each subject by means of real-time ultrasonography, and gastroduodenal motor activity was measured by means of a probe consisting of three polyvinyl catheters with one side opening for each catheter, placed 15 cm apart and constantly perfused with deionized water [7].

High impact information on hydrogen oxide

  • Bound water structure and polymorphic amino acids act together to allow the binding of different peptides to MHC class I HLA-B53 [8].
  • To address this, we individually mutated 36 evolutionarily conserved basic and hydroxy group containing residues within RAG2 [9].
  • Long-term deuterated water (2H2O) incorporation into DNA demonstrated biphasic accrual of total and of memory/effector (m/e)-phenotype but not naive-phenotype T cells, consistent with the presence of short-lived and longer-lived subpopulations within the m/e-phenotype T cell pool [10].
  • Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 muCi HTO/ml body water [11].
  • Singlet oxygen (1O2), generated by exciting an eosin-Tris complex with a high intensity beam of radiation at 532 nm, was used to chemically modify bases in fragments of DNA containing the lac UV5 promoter in the presence of the DNA binding proteins, RNA polymerase and CRP (cAMP receptor protein) [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of hydrogen oxide


Biological context of hydrogen oxide


Anatomical context of hydrogen oxide

  • Deuterium oxide (D2O) treatment probably induces the formation of additional microtubules as distinct from increasing the length of those already present [23].
  • We measured transpulmonary indicator dilution curves of 51Cr-erythrocytes, 125I-albumin, 14C-urea, and 3H-water before and six and 24 hours after operation in seven patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass (ACB) and eight patients undergoing mitral valve replacement (MVR) [24].
  • The indicators used were 51Cr-labelled erythrocytes, 125I-albumin, 3H-water, and 14C-urea [25].
  • In a second set of experiments, 14C-butanol and tritiated water were infused for 10 or 60 seconds into the renal arteries of anesthetized rabbits, and the kidneys were then removed and frozen in liquid nitrogen [26].
  • An in vivo system for studying arterial transport was developed which utilized the rabbit carotid artery perfused in vivo with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 125I-labeled albumin, [3H]-3-methyl-d-glucose, or tritiated water [27].

Associations of hydrogen oxide with other chemical compounds

  • This conclusion is further supported by experiments in which expansin-mediated wall extension (i) was increased by 2 M urea (which should weaken hydrogen bonding between wall polymers) and (ii) was decreased by replacement of water with deuterated water, which has a stronger hydrogen bond [28].
  • The guest molecule is bound by the R-state monomer through the formation of two hydrogen bonds from the hydroxy group of Tylenol to the carbonyl oxygen and the nitrogen of A6 Cys and A11 Cys, respectively [29].
  • Intratumoral aromatase activity (AA) was measured in 145 samples of human primary breast carcinoma using the tritiated water release assay which quantifies the tritium lost to water during the aromatization of 1 beta-[3H]androstenedione to estrone [30].
  • Because data in the hamster on this mechanism are lacking, we fitted these animals with an extracorporeal bile duct and administered tritiated water intraperitoneally to label newly formed cholesterol [31].
  • To define these cholesterol fluxes and the possibility of a different modulation by bile acids with different suppressive capacities, a continuous labeling with tritiated water was used in rats with an extracorporeal bile duct receiving intraduodenal infusions of taurocholate or taurocholate plus deoxycholate [32].

Gene context of hydrogen oxide


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of hydrogen oxide

  • After injection into the renal artery of perfused, isolated rabbit kidneys, concentrations of both 14C-butanol and tritiated water in the initial samples collected from the renal venous outflow exceeded those of 125I-albumin when the rate of perfusion was low [26].
  • Singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) is widely believed to be the major cytotoxic agent involved in photodynamic therapy (PDT) [38].
  • The position of the hepatic vein cannula was verified using a tritiated water washout technique [39].
  • The Ser(25) side chain is seen in two positions in the d(1) heme pocket with relative occupancies of approximately 7:3, but in neither case is the hydroxy group bound to the iron atom; instead, a sulfate ion from the crystallization solution is bound between the Ser(25) side chain and the heme iron [40].
  • A hydrogen bond between the hydroxy group of the serine and the 13(1) keto group of one of the central bacteriochlorophylls of the complexes is identified by Raman spectroscopy in the model antenna complex containing one of the alanine-leucine helices [41].


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  9. Identification of basic residues in RAG2 critical for DNA binding by the RAG1-RAG2 complex. Fugmann, S.D., Schatz, D.G. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Subpopulations of long-lived and short-lived T cells in advanced HIV-1 infection. Hellerstein, M.K., Hoh, R.A., Hanley, M.B., Cesar, D., Lee, D., Neese, R.A., McCune, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
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  14. Inability to demonstrate hydroxylation of tyrosine by murine melanoma "tyrosinase" (L-DOPA oxidase), using the tritiated water assay technique. Shapiro, H.C., Edelstein, L.M., Patel, R.P., Okun, M.R., Blackburn, M., Snyder, M., Brennan, T., Wilgram, G. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Bile salt biotransformations by human intestinal bacteria. Ridlon, J.M., Kang, D.J., Hylemon, P.B. J. Lipid Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  22. Noninvasive analysis of hepatic glycogen kinetics before and after breakfast with deuterated water and acetaminophen. Jones, J.G., Fagulha, A., Barosa, C., Bastos, M., Barros, L., Baptista, C., Caldeira, M.M., Carvalheiro, M. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
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