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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of hypothyroidism on adenylyl cyclase activity and subtype gene expression in brown adipose tissue.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) expresses several adenylyl cyclase (AC) subtypes, and adrenergic stimulation selectively upregulates AC-III gene expression. Previous studies have described synergistic interactions between the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) on the regulation of gene expression in BAT. Because adrenergic stimulation also increases the activity of BAT type II thyroxine 5'-deiodinase (DII) and local T3 generation is important for many functional responses in BAT, we examined the effects of thyroid hormone status on the expression of various AC subtypes. Hypothyroidism selectively increased AC-III mRNA levels in BAT but not in white adipose tissue. Of the other subtypes examined, hypothyroidism did not alter AC-VI mRNA levels and slightly reduced AC-IX mRNA levels in BAT. The increase in AC-III expression was paralleled by an increase in forskolin-stimulated AC activity in BAT membranes. Sympathetic denervation of BAT abolished the increase in both AC activity and AC-III mRNA expression produced by hypothyroidism, but did not affect the expression of other subtypes. Surgical denervation also prevented the induction of AC-III in the cold-stressed euthyroid rat, but injections of T3 failed to alter AC-III expression in intact or denervated BAT. Our results indicate that T3 does not directly affect expression of AC-III. Rather, hypothyroidism increases BAT AC-III expression indirectly via an increase in sympathetic stimulation. Furthermore, our results strongly indicate that the increase in AC activity in hypothyroid BAT is due to increased expression of AC-III.[1]


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