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Gene Review

Adcy3  -  adenylate cyclase 3

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AC-III, AC3, ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 3, Adenylate cyclase type 3, Adenylate cyclase type III, ...
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Disease relevance of Adcy3


High impact information on Adcy3


Biological context of Adcy3

  • Ribonuclease protection studies confirmed that ACIII transcripts are present in germ cells, appear during the meiotic prophase, and accumulate during spermiogenesis [6].
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) expresses several adenylyl cyclase (AC) subtypes, and adrenergic stimulation selectively upregulates AC-III gene expression [2].

Anatomical context of Adcy3

  • These regulations of cAMP levels indicate that the major cyclase that produces cAMP in the rat oocyte has properties identical to those of recombinant or endogenous AC3 expressed in somatic cells [5].
  • These regulatory characteristics of AC activity are consistent with the molecular identification of ACs indicating the presence of AC3 in luteal cells [7].
  • A Northern blot analysis performed on total testis RNA demonstrated the presence of a predominant transcript of 7.5 kb, suggesting that the ACIII expressed in germ cells may derive from a splicing variant different from the 4.5 kb transcripts expressed in somatic cells [6].
  • Immunofluorescence localization of this protein in the seminiferous tubules showed that ACIII was predominantly expressed in postmeiotic germ cells from round spermatids in the cap phase to maturing elongating spermatids [6].
  • The spatial and temporal expression of ACIII in germ cells indicates a role of this AC in the acrosome formation [6].

Associations of Adcy3 with chemical compounds

  • Stimulation of cAMP levels by agents that increase Ca(2+) in native cells was consistent with the expression of AC3, but overexpression of AC6, which is inhibited by Ca(2+), blunted the Ca(2+)-stimulable cAMP response [8].
  • Molecular identification of adenylyl cyclase 3 in bovine corpus luteum and its regulation by prostaglandin F2alpha-induced signaling pathways [7].
  • In contrast, culture at 11 mM glucose decreased relative AC-III, -V and -VI mRNA levels by as much as 50% [9].
  • In contrast, such an enhanced postsynaptic dopamine D1 receptor efficacy did not occur 1-3 days following repeated morphine administration, but appeared to develop slowly resulting in a profound increase of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase 3 weeks after the last injection [10].
  • The increase in AC-III expression was paralleled by an increase in isoproterenol-stimulated AC activity [11].

Other interactions of Adcy3

  • This strategy yielded high-frequency amplification of a complementary DNA (cDNA) identical to type III AC (ACIII), a form previously identified as the major adenylyl cyclase expressed in the olfactory system [6].
  • The steady-state mRNA levels of AC II and AC III were clearly increased in the islets of the two rat models of NIDDM [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Adcy3


  1. Galphaolf identification by RT-PCR in purified normal pancreatic B cells and in islets from rat models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Frayon, S., Pessah, M., Giroix, M.H., Mercan, D., Boissard, C., Malaisse, W.J., Portha, B., Garel, J.M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of hypothyroidism on adenylyl cyclase activity and subtype gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Chaudhry, A., Granneman, J.G. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification and functional analysis of splice variants of the germ cell soluble adenylyl cyclase. Jaiswal, B.S., Conti, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in the promoter of adenylyl cyclase (AC)-III gene, overexpression of AC-III mRNA, and enhanced cAMP generation in islets from the spontaneously diabetic GK rat model of type 2 diabetes. Abdel-Halim, S.M., Guenifi, A., He, B., Yang, B., Mustafa, M., Höjeberg, B., Hillert, J., Bakhiet, M., Efendić, S. Diabetes (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Rodent oocytes express an active adenylyl cyclase required for meiotic arrest. Horner, K., Livera, G., Hinckley, M., Trinh, K., Storm, D., Conti, M. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The olfactory adenylyl cyclase III is expressed in rat germ cells during spermiogenesis. Gautier-Courteille, C., Salanova, M., Conti, M. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular identification of adenylyl cyclase 3 in bovine corpus luteum and its regulation by prostaglandin F2alpha-induced signaling pathways. Mamluk, R., Defer, N., Hanoune, J., Meidan, R. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Localization of adenylyl cyclase isoforms and G protein-coupled receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells: expression in caveolin-rich and noncaveolin domains. Ostrom, R.S., Liu, X., Head, B.P., Gregorian, C., Seasholtz, T.M., Insel, P.A. Mol. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Prolactin regulates adenylyl cyclase and insulin secretion in rat pancreatic islets. Tian, Y., Laychock, S.G. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Repeated and chronic morphine administration causes differential long-lasting changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission in rat striatum without changing its delta- and kappa-opioid receptor regulation. Tjon, G.H., De Vries, T.J., Ronken, E., Hogenboom, F., Wardeh, G., Mulder, A.H., Schoffelmeer, A.N. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Perinatal expression of adenylyl cyclase subtypes in rat brown adipose tissue. Chaudhry, A., Muffler, L.A., Yao, R., Granneman, J.G. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of adenylyl cyclase subtypes in brown adipose tissue: neural regulation of type III. Granneman, J.G. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
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