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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Molecular cloning, characterization, and potential roles of cytosolic and mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases in ethanol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The full-length DNAs for two Saccharomyces cerevisiae aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A 2,744-bp DNA fragment contained an open reading frame encoding cytosolic ALDH1, with 500 amino acids, which was located on chromosome XVI. A 2,661-bp DNA fragment contained an open reading frame encoding mitochondrial ALDH5, with 519 amino acids, of which the N-terminal 23 amino acids were identified as the putative leader sequence. The ALDH5 gene was located on chromosome V. The commercial ALDH (designated ALDH2) was partially sequenced and appears to be a mitochondrial enzyme encoded by a gene located on chromosome XV. The recombinant ALDH1 enzyme was found to be essentially NADP dependent, while the ALDH5 enzyme could utilize either NADP or NAD as a cofactor. The activity of ALDH1 was stimulated two- to fourfold by divalent cations but was unaffected by K+ ions. In contrast, the activity of ALDH5 increased in the presence of K+ ions: 15-fold with NADP and 40-fold with NAD, respectively. Activity staining of isoelectric focusing gels showed that cytosolic ALDH1 contributed 30 to 70% of the overall activity, depending on the cofactor used, while mitochondrial ALDH2 contributed the rest. Neither ALDH5 nor the other ALDH-like proteins identified from the genomic sequence contributed to the in vitro oxidation of acetaldehyde. To evaluate the physiological roles of these three ALDH isoenzymes, the genes encoding cytosolic ALDH1 and mitochondrial ALDH2 and ALDH5 were disrupted in the genome of strain TWY397 separately or simultaneously. The growth of single-disruption delta ald1 and delta ald2 strains on ethanol was marginally slower than that of the parent strain. The delta ald1 delta ald2 double-disruption strain failed to grow on glucose alone, but growth was restored by the addition of acetate, indicating that both ALDHs might catalyze the oxidation of acetaldehyde produced during fermentation. The double-disruption strain grew very slowly on ethanol. The role of mitochondrial ALDH5 in acetaldehyde metabolism has not been defined but appears to be unimportant.[1]

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