The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Scanning electron microscopy of hepatic ultrastructure: secondary, backscattered, and transmitted electron imaging.

Several methods of tissue preparation and different modes of operation of the scanning electron microscope were used to study the ultrastructure of rat liver. Rat livers were perfusion fixed with buffered 2 per cent paraformaldehyde or a mixture of 1.5 per cent paraformaldehyde and 1 per cent glutaraldehyde and processed as follows. Tissue blocks were postfixed in buffered 2 per cent osmium tetroxide followed sequentially by the ligand-mediated osmium binding technique, dehydration and cryofracture in ethanol, and critical point drying. They were then examined without metal coating in the scanning electron microscope operating in the secondary electron and backscattered electron modes. Fifty-micrometer sections were cut with a tissue sectioner, stained with lead citrate, postfixed with osmium, dehydrated, critical point dried, and examined in the secondary electron and back-scattered electron modes. Frozen sections (0.25 to 0.75 mum. thick) were cut by the method of Tokuyasu (Toluyasu KT: J Cell Biol 57:551, 1973) and their scanning transmission electron microscope images were examined either with a scanning transmission electron microscope detector or with a conversion stub using the secondary electron detector. Secondary electron images of the liver prepared by ligand-mediated osmium binding and subsequent cryofracture revealed such intracellular structures as cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, mitochondria, lipid droplets, nucleolus and nuclear chromatin, as well as the usual surface morphology, Lipocytes in the perisinusoidal space were readily identified. Backscattered electron images. Unembedded frozen sections had little drying artifact and were virtually free of freezing damage. The scanning transmission electron microscope image revealed those organelles visualized by the secondary electron mode in the ligand-mediated osmium binding-treated tissue.[1]


  1. Scanning electron microscopy of hepatic ultrastructure: secondary, backscattered, and transmitted electron imaging. Miyai, K., Abraham, J.L., Linthicum, D.S., Wagner, R.M. Lab. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities