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Chemical Compound Review

OSMIUM     osmium

Synonyms: osmio, tritioosmium, OSMIUM ION, AGN-PC-0D833A, AG-G-95673, ...
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Disease relevance of osmium

  • Various experimental conditions tested indicate that the LMGG display a complex effect on fixed tissues: they act primarily as a mordant between osmium-treated structures and lead, and concomitantly stabilize some tissue components against extraction incurred during dehydration and subsequent processing [1].
  • Fixation of the retina with aqueous osmium tetroxide retained only the radioactive compounds located in the photoreceptor and ganglion cells [2].
  • Kidney from normal male albino rats, of body weight 170-200 g, was fixed by arterial perfusion with buffered tannic acid-glutaraldehyde, and postfixed with osmium tetroxide [3].
  • Echinomycin-induced hypersensitivity to osmium tetroxide of DNA fragments incapable of forming Hoogsteen base pairs [4].
  • E. coli endonuclease III, the bovine endonuclease isolated from calf thymus, and the human endonuclease partially purified from HeLa and CEM-C1 lymphoblastoid cells incised DNA damaged with osmium tetroxide, ionizing radiation, or high doses of UV light at sites of pyrimidines [5].

High impact information on osmium

  • But material from the Earth, Mars, comets and various meteorites have Mg/Si and Al/Si ratios, oxygen-isotope ratios, osmium-isotope ratios and D/H, Ar/H2O and Kr/Xe ratios such that no primitive material similar to the Earth's mantle is currently represented in our meteorite collections [6].
  • These thylakoid preparations were then fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, embedded in Spurr, and sections were labeled with anti-PE 545 followed by protein A-large gold [7].
  • Osmium impregnation was used to determine the number of Golgi apparatus in both interphase and mitotic HeLa cells [8].
  • The resultant plasmid, pLNc40, is hypersensitive to cleavage by the single strand-specific nucleases, S1 nuclease and Bal31 nuclease, and to modification by the single strand-selective reagent, osmium tetroxide [9].
  • The glycocalyx was absent on organisms fixed without osmium and was partially lost when parasites aggregated in their own secretions before fixation [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of osmium

  • Single-strand circular DNA from bacteriophage M13mp9 was chemically modified with osmium tetroxide to introduce specifically cis-thymine glycol lesions, a major type of DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation [11].
  • 5. Synapses were made on short protuberances in the immediate vicinity of the neuronal cell bodies in both neonatal and adult ganglia as shown by staining presynaptic boutons with the zinc-iodide osmium method, injection of horseradish peroxidase into ganglion cells, and electron microscopical examination [12].
  • Chlamydia trachomatis (LGV strain L2/434/Bu), cultured for 40 h in L929 mouse fibroblasts, was fixed in glutaraldehyde-acrolein, p-formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, or glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide mixtures, postfixed in osmium tetroxide, stained in uranyl acetate, dehydrated in ethanols, and embedded in Epon [13].
  • Tissue blocks were postfixed in buffered 2 per cent osmium tetroxide followed sequentially by the ligand-mediated osmium binding technique, dehydration and cryofracture in ethanol, and critical point drying [14].
  • The organization of the fourth abdominal ganglion of the crayfish, Procambarus clarki, was studied with the light microscope in serial sections stained with osmium ethyl gallate [15].

Biological context of osmium

  • It relies on the detection of mismatched base pairs with hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide [16].
  • The reactivity of single-stranded thymidines with osmium tetraoxide was used to demonstrate the existence of a terminal overhang of the G-rich strand of telomeres from two distantly related eucaryotes, the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena spp. and the acellular slime mold Didymium spp [17].
  • Such chromosomes are seen in standard, spread preparations of ultraviolet light-irradiated, metaphase-arrested cells, which have been incubated in the presence of inhibitors of DNA synthesis; they are processed for electron microscopy by trypsinization, further fixation and osmium impregnation [18].
  • Mapping of the osmium binding site by S1 nuclease cleavage followed by restriction enzyme digestion has revealed one major site in the intergenic spacer between the H1 and H3 histone genes of D. melanogaster [19].
  • Whilst chemical cleavage of mismatch (CCM) detects all point mutations in DNA, its widespread use has been hampered by the complex multistage methodology and the need for toxic chemicals, in particular osmium tetroxide [20].

Anatomical context of osmium

  • Membranes in cell-wall-free dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus were examined after postfixation with osmium tetroxide-potassium ferrocyanide [21].
  • Actin filament destruction by osmium tetroxide [22].
  • Organization of actin in the leading edge of cultured cells: influence of osmium tetroxide and dehydration on the ultrastructure of actin meshworks [23].
  • That the IMP-free membrane blisters in embryonic corneas are artefacts of fixation is demonstrated by (a) their absence in replicas of fibroblasts frozen and fractured without prior aldehyde fixation and (b) their absence in sections of fibroblasts fixed in a combination of glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide [24].
  • Thus, postfixation in osmium tetroxide (1% for 7 min at room temperature) transformed the networks to a reticulum of kinked fibers, resembling those produced by the exposure of muscle F-actin to OsO4 in vitro (P. Maupin-Szamier and T. D. Pollard. 1978. J. Cell Biol. 77:837--852) [23].

Associations of osmium with other chemical compounds

  • Immunolocalization of the type 3 IP3 receptors in neonatal tissues revealed that staining corresponded to the distribution of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (visualized by osmium ferricyanide staining of thin tissue sections), which suggested localization of the type 3 IP3 receptor throughout the sarcoplasmic reticulum network [25].
  • Staining of Golgi elements was relatively indistinct with diaminobenzidine and strong with osmium-zinc iodide, in comparison to freshly harvested promyelocytes which have intense diaminobenzidine and osmium-zinc iodide staining of the pre-Golgi and Golgi compartments [26].
  • Effect of extraplanar ligands on the redox properties and the site of oxidation in iron, ruthenium, and osmium porphyrin complexes [27].
  • Morphological alterations in the Golgi complex (GC) and changes in the distribution of acid phosphatase (AcPase), thiamine pyrophosphatase (TPPase), complex carbohydrates and reduced osmium tetroxide compounds in this organelle were studied in the salivary gland cells of Drosophila during larval and prepupal development [28].
  • We present here a comparison of CCM with osmium tetroxide and with potassium permanganate, tested on a complete set of single base pair mismatches and a number of small insertion/deletions [20].

Gene context of osmium

  • Secondly, a total of 100 microg of recombinant TNF-alpha or IL-6 (0.6 microg/h) was administered daily to mice using an osmium pump [29].
  • Fixation in glutaraldehyde or other aldehydic fixatives, with or without osmium, did not affect the immunostaining of elastic tissue with affinity-purified antibodies to tropoelastin, or to anti-[alpha-elastin] or anti-[alkali-insoluble elastin] [30].
  • In order to study the nature of two other alleles, adrmto and adrK, we have analyzed overlapping Clc-1 cDNA amplification products by the hydroxylamine and osmium tetroxide modification technique and direct sequencing [31].
  • Carbon electrodes were modified with an acetylcholine esterase (AChE), choline oxidase (ChOx), and osmium poly(vinylpyridine)-based redox polymer containing horseradish peroxidase (Os-gel-HRP) [32].
  • Direct sequencing of four samples that displayed the same SSCP pattern and that were susceptible to cleavage of hetero-duplexes by osmium tetroxide revealed, in all cases, a deletion of a single T residue at nucleotide position 2143 within codon 671 of the CFTR gene [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of osmium

  • We have studied the destruction of purified muscle actin filaments by osmium tetroxide (OsO4) to develop methods to preserve actin filaments during preparation for electron microscopy [22].
  • We now describe a simple technique in which immunolabeled ultrathin frozen sections are subsequently treated with osmium tetroxide, dehydrated, and then embedded in plastic by impregnation with a monomer to the thickness of the section, followed by polymerization of the monomer [34].
  • Sixty minutes after ligation the cells of the ischemic border were ultrastructurally normal except for paradoxically relaxed sarcomeres, indicative of an inability to contract in response to the calcium influx produced by osmium tetroxide; progressive vacuolization of this zone was evident after 4 to 12 hours [35].
  • Local opening of the DNA double helix in eukaryotic cells detected by osmium probe and adduct-specific immunofluorescence [36].
  • Eight days after castration each cisterna of the regularly arranged Golgi lamellae fragmented into small vesicles, in which deposits of reduced osmium compound were in reduced amounts or completely absent, but no notable decrease of the fine reduced osmium particles in the cytoplasm adjacent to the Golgi complex occurred [37].


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  5. A highly conserved endonuclease activity present in Escherichia coli, bovine, and human cells recognizes oxidative DNA damage at sites of pyrimidines. Doetsch, P.W., Henner, W.D., Cunningham, R.P., Toney, J.H., Helland, D.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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  20. Potassium permanganate and tetraethylammonium chloride are a safe and effective substitute for osmium tetroxide in solid-phase fluorescent chemical cleavage of mismatch. Roberts, E., Deeble, V.J., Woods, C.G., Taylor, G.R. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Membrane distribution in dividing endosperm cells of Haemanthus. Jackson, W.T., Doyle, B.G. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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