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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Frozen Sections

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Disease relevance of Frozen Sections


Psychiatry related information on Frozen Sections


High impact information on Frozen Sections

  • We isolated single Reed-Sternberg cells from frozen sections that had been immunostained for CD30 [7].
  • The non-uniform requirement for engrailed function reflects the position-dependent expression of the engrailed locus and we demonstrate it here unambiguously by directly visualizing engrailed transcripts in frozen sections of embryos and larvae and in whole imaginal discs [8].
  • Polyclonal antibodies against the suprabasal, acidic 60 kd protein and the basal, alkaline 58.5 kd protein selectively recognized their antigens in immunoblots of NEPHGE -resolved keratins and decorated the corresponding epidermal compartments in frozen sections [9].
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemical localization studies on frozen sections indicate a disperse distribution of IL-2 receptor-positive cells in both the cortex and medulla [10].
  • In situ hybridization of biotin-substituted pMCT-1 to fixed frozen sections shows that expression of pMCT-1 is seen throughout the tumor and is highly heterogeneous on a cellular basis, while expression is undetectable in any cell in the normal colonic mucosa [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Frozen Sections


Biological context of Frozen Sections


Anatomical context of Frozen Sections

  • The presence of tumor cells in various murine tissues could be demonstrated by a clonogenic tumor assay, staining of frozen sections with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a human B cell antigen (CD19), and with the polymerase chain reaction technique [22].
  • The intracellular distribution of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) in resting and ionophore-activated human leukocytes has been determined using immuno-electronmicroscopic labeling of ultrathin frozen sections and subcellular fractionation techniques [23].
  • Affinity-purified monospecific antibodies against human fibrinogen and the platelet-specific proteins platelet factor 4 and beta thromboglobulin were used to localize these antigens in thin and ultra-thin frozen sections of mildly fixed, washed human blood platelets [24].
  • METHODS: Flow-cytometric analysis of isolated IELs and/or immunohistochemical staining of frozen sections were performed in 51 celiac patients and 50 controls with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against T-cell and natural killer (NK) receptors [25].
  • Minimal Glycine max binding was seen at any age in paraffin sections, although in frozen sections a weak but consistent supranuclear binding was seen in goblet cells of postnatal animals [26].

Associations of Frozen Sections with chemical compounds

  • In this investigation it was found that Lucké tumor cells labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate could be detected in frozen sections of all organs examined within 15 minutes, regardless of whether the hosts were adapted to a warm or a cold environment [27].
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin sections and unfixed frozen sections were coded, read blindly, and graded from negative (-) or weak (+) to intensely positive (4+) [26].
  • Using frozen sections of lymphoid organs that were fixed in formaldehyde prior to the immunofluorescence procedure, capped lymphocytes were found in characteristic locations depending on the tissue examined [28].
  • SKW3 cells added under flow conditions to frozen sections of human tonsil bound and rolled along reticular fibers in the presence of EDTA [29].
  • When ultrathin frozen sections of chicken cardiac muscle were osmicated, dehydrated in ethanol, embedded in ethyl cellulose, and stained with acidic uranyl acetate, filaments of 10-12 nm width were visualized in wide interfibrillar spaces [30].

Gene context of Frozen Sections

  • In addition, 4E3 can detect P-glycoprotein in immunocytochemical analysis of fixed tissue-cultured cells and in analysis of frozen sections of human tissue [31].
  • Furthermore, hybridization to RA ST frozen sections localized IL-6 mRNA to the synovial lining layer, which is comprised of type A and type B synoviocytes [32].
  • Binding assay of SAA on frozen sections revealed the presence of SAA-binding substances in the perifollicular area [33].
  • Fixed frozen sections of cartilage were examined by immunoperoxidase localization, using antibodies to the collagenase-generated cleavage site in CII, to an intrachain epitope recognized only in denatured CII, and to MMP-1 and MMP-13 (proenzyme, activated enzyme, or enzyme/inhibitor complex) [34].
  • Immunohistochemical studies on frozen sections of human kidney showed strong 11 beta HSD2 immunoreactivity in the cortical distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Frozen Sections


  1. Fibronectin production by human mammary cells. Stampfer, M.R., Vlodavsky, I., Smith, H.S., Ford, R., Becker, F.F., Riggs, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunologic relatedness of papillomaviruses from different species. Jenson, A.B., Rosenthal, J.D., Olson, C., Pass, F., Lancaster, W.D., Shah, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunocytochemical staining of estrogen receptor in paraffin sections of human breast cancer by use of monoclonal antibody: comparison with that in frozen sections. Shimada, A., Kimura, S., Abe, K., Nagasaki, K., Adachi, I., Yamaguchi, K., Suzuki, M., Nakajima, T., Miller, L.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies: detection and characterization in sera from patients with autoimmune hypoparathyroidism. Fattorossi, A., Aurbach, G.D., Sakaguchi, K., Cama, A., Marx, S.J., Streeten, E.A., Fitzpatrick, L.A., Brandi, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Overexpression of HER-2/neu is associated with poor survival in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Berchuck, A., Kamel, A., Whitaker, R., Kerns, B., Olt, G., Kinney, R., Soper, J.T., Dodge, R., Clarke-Pearson, D.L., Marks, P. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Congophilia in cerebral amyloidosis is modified by inactivation procedures on slow transmissible pathogens. Tashima, T., Kitamoto, T., Tateishi, J., Sato, Y. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Hodgkin's disease with monoclonal and polyclonal populations of Reed-Sternberg cells. Hummel, M., Ziemann, K., Lammert, H., Pileri, S., Sabattini, E., Stein, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The engrailed locus of Drosophila: in situ localization of transcripts reveals compartment-specific expression. Kornberg, T., Sidén, I., O'Farrell, P., Simon, M. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Sequential expression of mRNA-encoded keratin sets in neonatal mouse epidermis: basal cells with properties of terminally differentiating cells. Schweizer, J., Kinjo, M., Fürstenberger, G., Winter, H. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of interleukin-2 receptors as a differentiation marker on intrathymic stem cells. Ceredig, R., Lowenthal, J.W., Nabholz, M., MacDonald, H.R. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Biotinated probe containing a long-terminal repeat hybridized to a mouse colon tumor and normal tissue. Royston, M.E., Augenlicht, L.H. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with normal rat liver cells as probes in hepatocarcinogenesis. Holmes, C.H., Austin, E.B., Fisk, A., Gunn, B., Baldwin, R.W. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Oestrogen receptor staining of paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas following short fixation in formalin: a comparison with cytosolic and frozen section receptor analyses. Raymond, W.A., Leong, A.S. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of the integrin and activation steps mediating human eosinophil and neutrophil adhesion to chronically inflamed airway endothelium. McNulty, C.A., Symon, F.A., Wardlaw, A.J. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and breast cancer. Noguchi, M. The British journal of surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. NADPH diaphorase staining suggests a transient and localized contribution of nitric oxide to host defence against an intracellular pathogen in situ. Flesch, I.E., Hess, J.H., Kaufmann, S.H. Int. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Randomized prospective evaluation of frozen-section analysis for follicular neoplasms of the thyroid. Udelsman, R., Westra, W.H., Donovan, P.I., Sohn, T.A., Cameron, J.L. Ann. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of indomethacin on capillary growth and microvasculature in chronically stimulated rat skeletal muscles. Pearce, S.C., Hudlická, O., Brown, M.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Human follicular dendritic cells and vascular cells produce interleukin-7: a potential role for interleukin-7 in the germinal center reaction. Kröncke, R., Loppnow, H., Flad, H.D., Gerdes, J. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Lymphocytic lymphoma/B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia--an immunohistopathological study of peripheral B lymphocyte neoplasia. Swerdlow, S.H., Murray, L.J., Habeshaw, J.A., Stansfeld, A.G. Br. J. Cancer (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Low E-cadherin expression in bladder cancer at the transcriptional and protein level provides prognostic information. Popov, Z., Gil-Diez de Medina, S., Lefrere-Belda, M.A., Hoznek, A., Bastuji-Garin, S., Abbou, C.C., Thiery, J.P., Radvanyi, F., Chopin, D.K. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Use of a SCID mouse/human lymphoma model to evaluate cytokine-induced killer cells with potent antitumor cell activity. Schmidt-Wolf, I.G., Negrin, R.S., Kiem, H.P., Blume, K.G., Weissman, I.L. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. 5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein are localized in the nuclear envelope of activated human leukocytes. Woods, J.W., Evans, J.F., Ethier, D., Scott, S., Vickers, P.J., Hearn, L., Heibein, J.A., Charleson, S., Singer, I.I. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Immunocytochemical localization of fibrinogen, platelet factor 4, and beta thromboglobulin in thin frozen sections of human blood platelets. Sander, H.J., Slot, J.W., Bouma, B.N., Bolhuis, P.A., Pepper, D.S., Sixma, J.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Selective expansion of intraepithelial lymphocytes expressing the HLA-E-specific natural killer receptor CD94 in celiac disease. Jabri, B., de Serre, N.P., Cellier, C., Evans, K., Gache, C., Carvalho, C., Mougenot, J.F., Allez, M., Jian, R., Desreumaux, P., Colombel, J.F., Matuchansky, C., Cugnenc, H., Lopez-Botet, M., Vivier, E., Moretta, A., Roberts, A.I., Ebert, E.C., Guy-Grand, D., Brousse, N., Schmitz, J., Cerf-Bensussan, N. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Lectin binding patterns in developing rat colon. Colony, P.C., Steely, J. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Vascular dissemination of tumor cells in relation to temperature-dependent metastasis in frogs. Juacaba, S.F., McKinnell, R.G., Hanson, W.J., Tarin, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Spectrin immunofluorescence distinguishes a population of naturally capped lymphocytes in situ. Repasky, E.A., Symer, D.E., Bankert, R.B. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. CD44 and hyaluronan-dependent rolling interactions of lymphocytes on tonsillar stroma. Clark, R.A., Alon, R., Springer, T.A. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Visualization of longitudinally-oriented intermediate filaments in frozen sections of chicken cardiac muscle by a new staining method. Tokuyasu, K.T. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Monoclonal antibody to an external epitope of the human mdr1 P-glycoprotein. Arceci, R.J., Stieglitz, K., Bras, J., Schinkel, A., Baas, F., Croop, J. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Quantitative analysis of cytokine gene expression in rheumatoid arthritis. Firestein, G.S., Alvaro-Gracia, J.M., Maki, R., Alvaro-Garcia, J.M. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. The role of fibronectin in the development of experimental amyloidosis. Evidence of immunohistochemical codistribution and binding property with serum amyloid protein A. Kawahara, E., Shiroo, M., Nakanishi, I., Migita, S. Am. J. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Sites of collagenase cleavage and denaturation of type II collagen in aging and osteoarthritic articular cartilage and their relationship to the distribution of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and matrix metalloproteinase 13. Wu, W., Billinghurst, R.C., Pidoux, I., Antoniou, J., Zukor, D., Tanzer, M., Poole, A.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunohistochemical localization of the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme in human kidney and placenta. Krozowski, Z., MaGuire, J.A., Stein-Oakley, A.N., Dowling, J., Smith, R.E., Andrews, R.K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Immunocytochemical localization of the receptor for asialoglycoprotein in rat liver cells. Geuze, H.J., Slot, J.W., Strous, G.J., Lodish, H.F., Schwartz, A.L. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  37. Thrombospondin is an osteoblast-derived component of mineralized extracellular matrix. Robey, P.G., Young, M.F., Fisher, L.W., McClain, T.D. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. Ultrastructure of chicken cardiac muscle as studied by double immunolabeling in electron microscopy. Tokuyasu, K.T., Dutton, A.H., Geiger, B., Singer, S.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  39. Differential expression of tissue factor protein in directional atherectomy specimens from patients with stable and unstable coronary syndromes. Annex, B.H., Denning, S.M., Channon, K.M., Sketch, M.H., Stack, R.S., Morrissey, J.H., Peters, K.G. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. In vitro adherence of lymphocytes to dermal endothelium under shear stress: implications in pathobiology and steroid therapy of acute cutaneous GVHD. Sackstein, R., Messina, J.L., Elfenbein, G.J. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
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