The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular identification and coexpression of galanin and GalR-1 galanin receptor in the human ocular ciliary epithelium: differential modulation of their expression by the activation of alpha2- and beta2-adrenergic receptors in cultured ciliary epithelial cells.

Here we report the coexpression of the neuropeptide galanin and GalR-1 galanin receptors in the human ciliary epithelium, a bilayer of neuroepithelial cells [nonpigmented (NPE) and pigmented (PE)] with neuroendocrine functions, and in a cell line (ODM-2) derived from the NPE cells. Stimulation of ODM-2 cells with phorbol ester [phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)] or forskolin resulted in an up-regulation (two- to threefold) of galanin mRNA expression. Procaterol, a selective beta2-adrenergic agonist, and the catecholamine isoproterenol exerted a long-term down-regulation on galanin mRNA expression when added alone or in combination with PMA or forskolin. These actions exerted by procaterol or isoproterenol were abolished in the presence of ICI 118,551, a selective beta2-adrenergic antagonist. A radioimmunoassay for galanin peptide indicated that galanin or a galanin-like product is present in the human aqueous humor fluid and is accumulated with time in the culture medium of ODM-2 cells. It is interesting that norepinephrine, which exhibited no effect on galanin mRNA expression, induced a down-regulation in the level of galanin or galanin-like product accumulated in the medium of cultured ODM-2 cells to levels even lower than those induced by beta2-adrenergic agonists. This effect is best explained by the concomitant up-regulation (four- to fivefold) of GalR-1 galanin receptor transcripts induced through the activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors. These findings support the view that pathways elicited by the activation of alpha2- and beta2-adrenergic receptors influence the expression of galanin and GalR-1 galanin receptors in ciliary epithelial cells.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities