The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

RGS16  -  regulator of G-protein signaling 16

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: A28-RGS14, A28-RGS14P, RGS-R, RGS-r, RGSR, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of RGS16

  • Deletion or alanine substitution of an N-terminal leucine repeat motif present in both RGS4 and RGS16, a domain identified as a nuclear export sequence in HIV Rev and other proteins, promoted nuclear localization of these proteins in COS-7 cells [1].
  • We have expressed a human homologue of murine retinal specific RGS (hRGSr) in Escherichia coli and investigated its role in the regulation of transducin GTPase activity [2].
  • These results suggest that the loss of RGS16 in some breast tumors enhances PI3K signaling elicited by growth factors and thereby promotes proliferation and TKI evasion downstream of HER activation [3].

High impact information on RGS16


Biological context of RGS16

  • Blockade of endogenous Src activity by selective inhibitors attenuated RGS16 phosphorylation induced by pervanadate or receptor stimulation [7].
  • RGS16E89K increased GTP hydrolysis of Galpha(i1) by a similar extent, but with an about 100-fold reduced affinity compared with non-mutated RGS16 [8].
  • In contrast, mutation of Tyr(177) to phenylalanine had no effect on RGS16 GAP activity but also abolished its regulation of G(i)-mediated signal transduction in these cells [9].
  • NH2-terminal acylation also permitted palmitoylation of a cysteine residue in the RGS box of RGS16 (Cys-98) [10].
  • Furthermore, mobilization of calcium by A23187 and thapsigargin blocked the TNFalpha-mediated induction of RGS16, which was reversed by EGTA and by the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A, suggesting that the calcineurin/NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) pathway may repress the up-regulation process [11].

Anatomical context of RGS16


Associations of RGS16 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of RGS16

  • RGS16 co-immunoprecipitated with EGFR, and the interaction did not require EGFR activation [9].

Enzymatic interactions of RGS16

  • Purified EGFR phosphorylated only recombinant RGS16 wild-type or Y177F in vitro, implying that EGFR-mediated phosphorylation depended on residue Tyr(168) [9].
  • Mutational analysis suggested that RGS16 was phosphorylated on both tyrosine residues (Tyr(168) Tyr(177)) after EGF stimulation [9].

Other interactions of RGS16

  • In contrast, RGS4 and RGS16 accumulated in the cytoplasm of COS-7 transfectants [1].
  • At low levels of stimulation RGS5 and RGS16 retained their differential Galpha activity, further highlighting that RGS proteins can discriminate between two very closely related Galpha subunits [17].
  • We have cloned an IL-2-induced gene from human T cells, cytokine-responsive gene 1, which encodes a member of the RGS family, RGS16 [18].
  • In addition, RGS2 shares an N-terminal membrane targeting domain with RGS4 and RGS16 [19].
  • Specific induction of RGS16 (regulator of G-protein signalling 16) mRNA by protein kinase C in CEM leukaemia cells is mediated via tumour necrosis factor alpha in a calcium-sensitive manner [11].


  1. Cytoplasmic, nuclear, and golgi localization of RGS proteins. Evidence for N-terminal and RGS domain sequences as intracellular targeting motifs. Chatterjee, T.K., Fisher, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of transducin GTPase activity by human retinal RGS. Natochin, M., Granovsky, A.E., Artemyev, N.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. RGS16 inhibits breast cancer cell growth by mitigating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Liang, G., Bansal, G., Xie, Z., Druey, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  4. RGS16 inhibits signalling through the G alpha 13-Rho axis. Johnson, E.N., Seasholtz, T.M., Waheed, A.A., Kreutz, B., Suzuki, N., Kozasa, T., Jones, T.L., Brown, J.H., Druey, K.M. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The p53 tumor suppressor targets a novel regulator of G protein signaling. Buckbinder, L., Velasco-Miguel, S., Chen, Y., Xu, N., Talbott, R., Gelbert, L., Gao, J., Seizinger, B.R., Gutkind, J.S., Kley, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. RGS16 is a negative regulator of SDF-1-CXCR4 signaling in megakaryocytes. Berthebaud, M., Rivière, C., Jarrier, P., Foudi, A., Zhang, Y., Compagno, D., Galy, A., Vainchenker, W., Louache, F. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Src-mediated RGS16 tyrosine phosphorylation promotes RGS16 stability. Derrien, A., Zheng, B., Osterhout, J.L., Ma, Y.C., Milligan, G., Farquhar, M.G., Druey, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Polarity exchange at the interface of regulators of G protein signaling with G protein alpha-subunits. Wieland, T., Bahtijari, N., Zhou, X.B., Kleuss, C., Simon, M.I. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. RGS16 function is regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. Derrien, A., Druey, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Palmitoylation regulates regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) 16 function. II. Palmitoylation of a cysteine residue in the RGS box is critical for RGS16 GTPase accelerating activity and regulation of Gi-coupled signalling. Osterhout, J.L., Waheed, A.A., Hiol, A., Ward, R.J., Davey, P.C., Nini, L., Wang, J., Milligan, G., Jones, T.L., Druey, K.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Specific induction of RGS16 (regulator of G-protein signalling 16) mRNA by protein kinase C in CEM leukaemia cells is mediated via tumour necrosis factor alpha in a calcium-sensitive manner. Fong, C.W., Zhang, Y., Neo, S.Y., Lin, S.C. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Follicular dendritic cell regulation of CXCR4-mediated germinal center CD4 T cell migration. Estes, J.D., Thacker, T.C., Hampton, D.L., Kell, S.A., Keele, B.F., Palenske, E.A., Druey, K.M., Burton, G.F. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. CXCL12 does not attract CXCR4+ human metastatic neuroblastoma cells: clinical implications. Airoldi, I., Raffaghello, L., Piovan, E., Cocco, C., Carlini, B., Amadori, A., Corrias, M.V., Pistoia, V. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. A key serine for the GTPase-activating protein function of regulator of G protein signaling proteins is not a general target for 14-3-3 interactions. Ward, R.J., Milligan, G. Mol. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Evidence for a short form of RGS3 preferentially expressed in the human heart. Mittmann, C., Schüler, C., Chung, C.H., Höppner, G., Nose, M., Kehrl, J.H., Wieland, T. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Gonadotrophin-induced gene regulation in human granulosa cells obtained from IVF patients. Modulation of steroidogenic genes, cytoskeletal genes and genes coding for apoptotic signalling and protein kinases. Sasson, R., Rimon, E., Dantes, A., Cohen, T., Shinder, V., Land-Bracha, A., Amsterdam, A. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential effects of RGS proteins on Galpha(q) and Galpha(11) activity. Ladds, G., Goddard, A., Hill, C., Thornton, S., Davey, J. Cell. Signal. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulators of G protein signaling exhibit distinct patterns of gene expression and target G protein specificity in human lymphocytes. Beadling, C., Druey, K.M., Richter, G., Kehrl, J.H., Smith, K.A. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. RGS2: a multifunctional regulator of G-protein signaling. Kehrl, J.H., Sinnarajah, S. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities