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Gene Review

PARP4  -  poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 4

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 193 kDa vault protein, ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 4, ADPRTL1, ARTD4, KIAA0177, ...
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High impact information on PARP4


Biological context of PARP4

  • This protein now designated PH5P points to as yet unsuspected links between poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and the inter-alpha-inhibitor family and is likely to be involved in DNA repair [4].

Physical interactions of PARP4

  • However, the N-terminal half of MVP binds to a specific domain in the C-terminus of VPARP [5].

Other interactions of PARP4

  • With the recent identification of the two minor vault proteins as telomerase-associated protein (TEP1) and vault-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP), and with high-resolution three-dimensional imaging, the composition of vaults is almost unraveled [6].
  • We have subsequently refined the location of the ADPRTL1 genomic locus to 13q11, close to the recently cloned ZNF198 gene [3].
  • We now report the full-length sequence, expression profile, and chromosomal localization of a novel gene, ADPRTL1, encoding an ADP-ribosyltransferase-like protein [3].
  • The complex consists of a major vault protein (MVP), two minor vault proteins (VPARP and TEP1), and several small untranslated RNA molecules [7].
  • Vaults are barrel-shaped cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles composed of three proteins: the major vault protein (MVP), the vault poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (VPARP), and the telomerase-associated protein 1, together with one or more small untranslated RNAs [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PARP4

  • Immunofluorescence and biochemical data reveal that p193 protein is not entirely associated with the vault particle, suggesting that it may interact with other protein(s) [1].


  1. The 193-kD vault protein, VPARP, is a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Kickhoefer, V.A., Siva, A.C., Kedersha, N.L., Inman, E.M., Ruland, C., Streuli, M., Rome, L.H. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The Mr 193,000 vault protein is up-regulated in multidrug-resistant cancer cell lines. Schroeijers, A.B., Siva, A.C., Scheffer, G.L., de Jong, M.C., Bolick, S.C., Dukers, D.F., Slootstra, J.W., Meloen, R.H., Wiemer, E., Kickhoefer, V.A., Rome, L.H., Scheper, R.J. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of a novel gene (ADPRTL1) encoding a potential Poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase protein. Still, I.H., Vince, P., Cowell, J.K. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The nuclear protein PH5P of the inter-alpha-inhibitor superfamily: a missing link between poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and the inter-alpha-inhibitor family and a novel actor of DNA repair? Jean, L., Risler, J.L., Nagase, T., Coulouarn, C., Nomura, N., Salier, J.P. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Structural domains of vault proteins: a role for the coiled coil domain in vault assembly. van Zon, A., Mossink, M.H., Schoester, M., Scheffer, G.L., Scheper, R.J., Sonneveld, P., Wiemer, E.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Lung resistance-related protein/major vault protein and vaults in multidrug-resistant cancer. Scheffer, G.L., Schroeijers, A.B., Izquierdo, M.A., Wiemer, E.A., Scheper, R.J. Current opinion in oncology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Multiple human vault RNAs. Expression and association with the vault complex. van Zon, A., Mossink, M.H., Schoester, M., Scheffer, G.L., Scheper, R.J., Sonneveld, P., Wiemer, E.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of MVP and VPARP assembly into vault ribonucleoprotein complexes. Zheng, C.L., Sumizawa, T., Che, X.F., Tsuyama, S., Furukawa, T., Haraguchi, M., Gao, H., Gotanda, T., Jueng, H.C., Murata, F., Akiyama, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
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