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Gene Review

DLX1  -  distal-less homeobox 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Homeobox protein DLX-1
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Psychiatry related information on DLX1

  • CONCLUSION: Decreased thalamic expression of DLX1 in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis suggests shared genetic deficits in expression of this homeobox gene [1].

High impact information on DLX1

  • The second lineage, characterized by the expression of Dlx1/2 but not Mash1, forms around 35% of the GABAergic neurons and originates from the ganglionic eminence of the ventral forebrain [2].
  • RESULTS: Patients with a history of psychosis showed significantly decreased relative numbers of DLX1-positive neurons compared with patients without history of psychosis and nonpsychiatric controls (P =.02), whereas no differences could be found in relative numbers of SHOX2-positive neurons (P>.15) [1].
  • Decreased thalamic expression of the homeobox gene DLX1 in psychosis [1].
  • We report here that, in addition to the previously reported regions/cells, DLX1 is expressed in hematopoietic cells in a lineage-dependent manner and that DLX1 interacts with Smad4 through its homeodomain [3].
  • Taken together, these data suggest that DLX1 may function as a regulator of multiple signals from TGF-beta superfamily members in broad biological contexts during blood production [3].

Biological context of DLX1

  • DLX1 has been reported to be temporally and spatially coexpressed with BMP-4 during embryogenesis in selected contexts [3].
  • BACKGROUND: Linkage studies in autism have identified susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2q and 7q, regions containing the DLX1/2 and DLX5/6 bigene clusters [4].

Anatomical context of DLX1


Physical interactions of DLX1

  • Homeoprotein DLX-1 interacts with Smad4 and blocks a signaling pathway from activin A in hematopoietic cells [3].

Other interactions of DLX1


  1. Decreased thalamic expression of the homeobox gene DLX1 in psychosis. Kromkamp, M., Uylings, H.B., Smidt, M.P., Hellemons, A.J., Burbach, J.P., Kahn, R.S. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Origin of GABAergic neurons in the human neocortex. Letinic, K., Zoncu, R., Rakic, P. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Homeoprotein DLX-1 interacts with Smad4 and blocks a signaling pathway from activin A in hematopoietic cells. Chiba, S., Takeshita, K., Imai, Y., Kumano, K., Kurokawa, M., Masuda, S., Shimizu, K., Nakamura, S., Ruddle, F.H., Hirai, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of four DLX homeobox genes in autistic probands. Hamilton, S.P., Woo, J.M., Carlson, E.J., Ghanem, N., Ekker, M., Rubenstein, J.L. BMC Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Dlx-dependent and -independent regulation of olfactory bulb interneuron differentiation. Long, J.E., Garel, S., Alvarez-Dolado, M., Yoshikawa, K., Osumi, N., Alvarez-Buylla, A., Rubenstein, J.L. J. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Physical mapping of the split hand/split foot locus on chromosome 7 and implication in syndromic ectrodactyly. Scherer, S.W., Poorkaj, P., Massa, H., Soder, S., Allen, T., Nunes, M., Geshuri, D., Wong, E., Belloni, E., Little, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
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