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Gene Review

INHBE  -  inhibin, beta E

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Activin beta-E chain, Inhibin beta E chain, MGC4638, activin
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Disease relevance of INHBE


Psychiatry related information on INHBE


High impact information on INHBE

  • In the process other factors such as activin and follistatin were serendipitously discovered [6].
  • Indeed, Ski disrupts the formation of a functional complex between the Co- and R-Smads, explaining how it could lead to repression of TGF-beta, activin, and BMP responses [7].
  • The identification of protein factors, such as epimorphin, scatter factor, and activin, that induce epithelial branching and convergent extension-like movements in embryonic tissues are important breakthroughs in our understanding of the role of mesenchyme in epithelial morphogenesis [8].
  • Nodal signaling activates a canonical TGFss pathway involving activin receptors, Smad2 transcription factors, and FoxH1 coactivators [9].
  • The TGF-beta/activin/BMP superfamily of growth factors signals through heteromeric receptor complexes of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of INHBE


Biological context of INHBE


Anatomical context of INHBE

  • Moreover, when FSTL3, which does not associate with cell membranes, was expressed as a membrane-anchored protein, its endogenous activin inhibitory activity was dramatically increased [16].
  • Although there is information on the expression of activin subunits and receptors in fibroblasts and keratinocytes, there are no reports on the regulation of FS expression in these cells [17].
  • We conclude that the expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins is affected by tumour formation in the adrenal gland and may play a role in tumorigenesis [18].
  • Objective The growth and differentiation factors activin and inhibin can affect tumour formation and steroid production in the adrenal cortex [18].
  • Activin A concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid are age-dependent and elevated in meningitis [2].

Associations of INHBE with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of INHBE


Enzymatic interactions of INHBE

  • Smad2 and Smad3 were phosphorylated in response to activin and accumulated in the nucleus of treated T47D cells [25].

Regulatory relationships of INHBE


Other interactions of INHBE


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of INHBE


  1. Presence of activin, inhibin, and follistatin in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Welt, C.K., Lambert-Messerlian, G., Zheng, W., Crowley, W.F., Schneyer, A.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Activin A concentrations in human cerebrospinal fluid are age-dependent and elevated in meningitis. Ebert, S., Phillips, D.J., Jenzewski, P., Nau, R., O'connor, A.E., Michel, U. J. Neurol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Activin effects on neoplastic proliferation of human pituitary tumors. Danila, D.C., Inder, W.J., Zhang, X., Alexander, J.M., Swearingen, B., Hedley-Whyte, E.T., Klibanski, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression and localization of activin subunits and follistatins in tissues from men with high grade prostate cancer. Thomas, T.Z., Wang, H., Niclasen, P., O'Bryan, M.K., Evans, L.W., Groome, N.P., Pedersen, J., Risbridger, G.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Id proteins: novel targets of activin action, which regulate epidermal homeostasis. Rotzer, D., Krampert, M., Sulyok, S., Braun, S., Stark, H.J., Boukamp, P., Werner, S. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Nonsteroidal signals originating in the gonads. Ackland, J.F., Schwartz, N.B., Mayo, K.E., Dodson, R.E. Physiol. Rev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural mechanism of Smad4 recognition by the nuclear oncoprotein Ski: insights on Ski-mediated repression of TGF-beta signaling. Wu, J.W., Krawitz, A.R., Chai, J., Li, W., Zhang, F., Luo, K., Shi, Y. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Epithelial morphogenesis. Gumbiner, B.M. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Nodal signaling in vertebrate development. Schier, A.F. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Partnership between DPC4 and SMAD proteins in TGF-beta signalling pathways. Lagna, G., Hata, A., Hemmati-Brivanlou, A., Massagué, J. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Activin inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth: selective actions on androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. Dalkin, A.C., Gilrain, J.T., Bradshaw, D., Myers, C.E. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Follistatin is a developmentally regulated cytokine in neural differentiation. Hashimoto, M., Nakamura, T., Inoue, S., Kondo, T., Yamada, R., Eto, Y., Sugino, H., Muramatsu, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Release of activin and follistatin during cardiovascular procedures is largely due to heparin administration. Phillips, D.J., Jones, K.L., McGaw, D.J., Groome, N.P., Smolich, J.J., Pärsson, H., de Kretser, D.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Two distinct signaling pathways activated by activin A in glucose-responsive pancreatic beta-cell lines. Shibata, H., Kanzaki, M., Takeuchi, T., Miyazaki, J., Kojima, I. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Physiological and regulatory roles of activin A in late pregnancy. Jenkin, G., Ward, J., Loose, J., Schneider-Kolsky, M., Young, R., Canny, B., O'Connor, A., de Kretser, D., Wallace, E. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Biological activity of follistatin isoforms and follistatin-like-3 is dependent on differential cell surface binding and specificity for activin, myostatin, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Sidis, Y., Mukherjee, A., Keutmann, H., Delbaere, A., Sadatsuki, M., Schneyer, A. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Follistatin production by skin fibroblasts and its regulation by dexamethasone. Kawakami, S., Fujii, Y., Winters, S.J. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of activin and inhibin subunits, receptors and binding proteins in Human adrenocortical neoplasms. Hofland, J., Timmerman, M.A., de Herder, W.W., van Schaik, R.H., de Krijger, R.R., de Jong, F.H. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Follistatin and activin A serum concentrations in obese and non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Eldar-Geva, T., Spitz, I.M., Groome, N.P., Margalioth, E.J., Homburg, R. Hum. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel role of follistatin, an activin-binding protein, in the inhibition of activin action in rat pituitary cells. Endocytotic degradation of activin and its acceleration by follistatin associated with cell-surface heparan sulfate. Hashimoto, O., Nakamura, T., Shoji, H., Shimasaki, S., Hayashi, Y., Sugino, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. The role of follistatin domains in follistatin biological action. Keutmann, H.T., Schneyer, A.L., Sidis, Y. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Analysis of human follistatin structure: identification of two discontinuous N-terminal sequences coding for activin A binding and structural consequences of activin binding to native proteins. Wang, Q., Keutmann, H.T., Schneyer, A.L., Sluss, P.M. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein of inhibin and activin. Vaughan, J.M., Vale, W.W. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of a functional binding site for activin on the type I receptor ALK4. Harrison, C.A., Gray, P.C., Koerber, S.C., Fischer, W., Vale, W. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Activin A mediates growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest through Smads in human breast cancer cells. Burdette, J.E., Jeruss, J.S., Kurley, S.J., Lee, E.J., Woodruff, T.K. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of follistatin production by rat granulosa cells in vitro. Shintani, Y., Dyson, M., Drummond, A.E., Findlay, J.K. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Crucial role of activin a in tubulogenesis of endothelial cells induced by vascular endothelial growth factor. Maeshima, K., Maeshima, A., Hayashi, Y., Kishi, S., Kojima, I. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Regulation of prostate-specific antigen by activin A in prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Fujii, Y., Kawakami, S., Okada, Y., Kageyama, Y., Kihara, K. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. The secretion and effect of inhibin A, activin A and follistatin on first-trimester trophoblasts in vitro. Bearfield, C., Jauniaux, E., Groome, N., Sargent, I.L., Muttukrishna, S. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcription activation of FLRG and follistatin by activin A, through Smad proteins, participates in a negative feedback loop to modulate activin A function. Bartholin, L., Maguer-Satta, V., Hayette, S., Martel, S., Gadoux, M., Corbo, L., Magaud, J.P., Rimokh, R. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Activin and follistatin as local regulators in the human ovary. Peng, C., Ohno, T., Khorasheh, S., Leung, P.C. Biol. Signals (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Novel action of activin and bone morphogenetic protein in regulating aldosterone production by human adrenocortical cells. Suzuki, J., Otsuka, F., Inagaki, K., Takeda, M., Ogura, T., Makino, H. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Presence of activin (erythroid differentiation factor) in unfertilized eggs and blastulae of Xenopus laevis. Asashima, M., Nakano, H., Uchiyama, H., Sugino, H., Nakamura, T., Eto, Y., Ejima, D., Nishimatsu, S., Ueno, N., Kinoshita, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Follistatin: essential role for the N-terminal domain in activin binding and neutralization. Sidis, Y., Schneyer, A.L., Sluss, P.M., Johnson, L.N., Keutmann, H.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of activins and follistatin proteins in human follicular fluid and placenta. Yokoyama, Y., Nakamura, T., Nakamura, R., Irahara, M., Aono, T., Sugino, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Expression of activin A and follistatin core proteins by human prostate tumor cell lines. McPherson, S.J., Mellor, S.L., Wang, H., Evans, L.W., Groome, N.P., Risbridger, G.P. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
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