The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Rhd  -  Rh blood group, D antigen

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Blood group Rh(D) polypeptide, Erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein Rh30, Rh, Rh30, Rhced, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Rhd

  • Functionally divergent amino acid sites are clustered in transmembrane segments and around the gas-conducting lumen recently identified in Escherichia coli AmtB, in agreement with Rh proteins having new substrate specificity [1].

High impact information on Rhd

  • Despite gene duplications and mutations, the Rh paralogous groups all have apparently been subject to strong purifying selection indicating functional conservation [1].
  • Rhesus (Rh) proteins were first identified in human erythroid cells and recently in other tissues [1].
  • To reconstruct the phylogeny of the Rh family and study its coexistence with and relationship to Amt in depth, we analyzed 111 Rh genes and 260 Amt genes [1].
  • RhAG and Rh were found to be efficiently coimmunoprecipitated with band 3 from deoxycholate-solubilized membranes [2].
  • To assess the localization along the nephron of RhBG, polyclonal antibodies against the Rh type B glycoprotein were generated [3].

Biological context of Rhd

  • Rhced and Rhag are both specified by 10 exons and bear a similar exon/intron structure, but their major transcription start sites are mapped at -17A and -27A [4].
  • Neither sequences homologous to the characteristic nucleotide elements flanking the RHD gene in humans (rhesus boxes) nor an additional Rh gene were found within the mouse region sequenced [5].
  • We also BLAST-searched an amino acid sequence database, and the Rh blood group and related genes were found to have homology with ammonium transporter genes of many organisms [6].
  • Cellular and tissue distribution of Rh-OPTN protein were highly similar to its human and mouse homologous proteins [7].
  • Here we consider recent advances on these and other Rh homologues in the context of gene organization, molecular evolution, tissue-specific expression, protein structure, and potential biological functions [8].

Anatomical context of Rhd

  • Rh protein was detected in mouse erythrocyte membranes and was comparable in size to human Rh [9].
  • Mouse erythrocytes do not show serologic reactivity with human Rh antibodies, probably because the greatest divergence between the mouse and the human genes was seen in the predicted extracellular loops, while the transmembrane regions were more conserved [9].
  • These systems (K562 and COS-1 cells) should prove useful for studying the transport of Rh proteins within the cell and the necessary components needed for Rh antigenicity at the cell surface [10].

Associations of Rhd with chemical compounds

  • Rhced encodes a glycoprotein of 418 amino acids which occurs as a composite of human RhD and RhCE with 60% identity and 74% similarity [4].

Other interactions of Rhd

  • The mouse Rhl1 and Rhag genes: sequence, organization, expression, and chromosomal mapping [4].
  • The results together predate the occurrence and signify a conserved function of the erythroid-specific Rh membrane structures [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rhd

  • The Rh blood group system is of clinical importance in blood transfusion and as the cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn [9].


  1. Evolutionary conservation and diversification of Rh family genes and proteins. Huang, C.H., Peng, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. A band 3-based macrocomplex of integral and peripheral proteins in the RBC membrane. Bruce, L.J., Beckmann, R., Ribeiro, M.L., Peters, L.L., Chasis, J.A., Delaunay, J., Mohandas, N., Anstee, D.J., Tanner, M.J. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. RhBG and RhCG, the putative ammonia transporters, are expressed in the same cells in the distal nephron. Quentin, F., Eladari, D., Cheval, L., Lopez, C., Goossens, D., Colin, Y., Cartron, J.P., Paillard, M., Chambrey, R. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. The mouse Rhl1 and Rhag genes: sequence, organization, expression, and chromosomal mapping. Liu, Z., Huang, C.H. Biochem. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Entire sequence of a mouse chromosomal segment containing the gene Rhced and a comparative analysis of the homologous human sequence. Kumada, M., Iwamoto, S., Kamesaki, T., Okuda, H., Kajii, E. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Evolutionary history of the Rh blood group-related genes in vertebrates. Kitano, T., Saitou, N. Immunogenetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of optineurin in the rhesus monkey. Rezaie, T., Waitzman, D.M., Seeman, J.L., Kaufman, P.L., Sarfarazi, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. New insights into the Rh superfamily of genes and proteins in erythroid cells and nonerythroid tissues. Huang, C.H., Liu, P.Z. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterization of the mouse Rh blood group gene. Westhoff, C.M., Schultze, A., From, A., Wylie, D.E., Silberstein, L.E. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of the Rh-related glycoprotein (Rh50). Suyama, K., Lunn, R., Smith, B.L., Haller, S. Acta Haematol. (1998) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities