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Gene Review

Ckm  -  creatine kinase, muscle

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Ckmm, Creatine kinase M chain, Creatine kinase M-type, M-CK
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High impact information on Ckm

  • Regulatory sequences of the M isozyme of the creatine kinase (MCK) gene have been extensively mapped in skeletal muscle, but little is known about the sequences that control cardiac-specific expression [1].
  • The promoter and enhancer sequences required for MCK gene expression were assayed by the direct injection of plasmid DNA constructs into adult rat cardiac and skeletal muscle [1].
  • The functional role of isozymes binding to sites of energy utilization and production characteristic of the adult myocardium can be evidenced by the functional coupling of M-CK to myofibrillar ATPase and mito-CK to translocase in Triton X-100 and saponin skinned fibers [2].
  • During cell maturation, the increasing contribution of oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production, the apparition and binding of mi-CK to mitochondria, the binding of M-CK to myofibrils, turn the cell in a compartmentalized system of energy production [2].
  • Thus, the decreased levels of creatine kinase in aging rats is correlated with decreased levels of mRNA encoding the BCK and MCK isoforms but not an isoform shift [3].

Biological context of Ckm

  • Thus, beta-adrenergic stimulation induces a switch in CK gene expression from M-CK to B-CK, which is characteristic for the hypertrophied and failing heart [4].
  • However, under such conditions myoblasts do not fuse, but withdraw from the cell cycle and accumulate the muscle isoform of creatine kinase (M-CK) [5].
  • Creatine kinase (CK) is important for energy transfer and is composed of mitochondrial (mitCK), muscle (MCK), and brain (BCK) subunits, each being the product of separate nuclear genes [6].

Anatomical context of Ckm

  • These data suggest that the MCK gene is controlled by different regulatory programs in adult cardiac and skeletal muscle [1].
  • The steady-state levels of the left ventricle mRNAs for alpha myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC), beta myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC), M creatine kinase (MCK), and B creatine kinase (BCK) were then determined using Northern and slot blot hybridizations [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ckm

  • After beta-adrenergic stimulation (iso 3 h) but not after control perfusion (control 3 h) a roughly threefold increase in B-CK mRNA levels and a decrease in M-CK mRNA levels by 18% was found [4].
  • Left ventricular tissue was analyzed for total CK-activity, CK-isoenzyme distribution and, by use of quantitative RT-PCR, for B-CK, M-CK, mito-CK and GAPDH- (as internal standard) mRNA [4].


  1. Different regulatory sequences control creatine kinase-M gene expression in directly injected skeletal and cardiac muscle. Vincent, C.K., Gualberto, A., Patel, C.V., Walsh, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Compartmentation of creatine kinases during perinatal development of mammalian heart. Hoerter, J.A., Ventura-Clapier, R., Kuznetsov, A. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of age on myosin and creatine kinase isoforms in left ventricles of Fischer 344 rats. Schuyler, G.T., Yarbrough, L.R. Mech. Ageing Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Acute changes of myocardial creatine kinase gene expression under beta-adrenergic stimulation. Hammerschmidt, S., Bell, M., Büchler, N., Wahn, H., Remkes, H., Lohse, M.J., Neubauer, S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. A cell surface phosphoprotein of 48 kDa specific for myoblast fusion. Lognonne, J.L., Wahrmann, J.P. Cell Differ. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Selective reduction of creatine kinase subunit mRNAs in striated muscle of diabetic rats. Su, C.Y., Payne, M., Strauss, A.W., Dillmann, W.H. Am. J. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Changes in myosin and creatine kinase mRNA levels with cardiac hypertrophy and hypothyroidism. Schuyler, G.T., Yarbrough, L.R. Basic Res. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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