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Gene Review

GCSAM  -  germinal center-associated, signaling and...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GAL, GCAT2, GCET2, Germinal center B-cell-expressed transcript 2 protein, Germinal center-associated lymphoma protein, ...
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Disease relevance of GCET2


High impact information on GCET2


Biological context of GCET2


Anatomical context of GCET2

  • Two newly characterized germinal center B-cell-associated genes, GCET1 and GCET2, have differential expression in normal and neoplastic B cells [4].
  • Although GCET2 is also a useful marker for normal and neoplastic GC B cells, it has a wider range of expression including immature B and T cells [4].
  • The HGAL gene is the human homolog of M17, a mouse gene expressed specifically in normal germinal center (GC) B cells [3].

Regulatory relationships of GCET2


Other interactions of GCET2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GCET2

  • The restricted expression and GC specificity of HGAL protein suggest that it may have an important role in the diagnosis of specific lymphomas, and, potentially in the identification of subtypes associated with different prognoses [3].


  1. Identification of an Sp factor-dependent promoter in GCET, a gene expressed at high levels in germinal center B cells. Steinke, J.W., Hodsdon, W., Parenti, S., Ostraat, R., Lutz, R., Borish, L., Hagman, J. Mol. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein identifies a subset of classic Hodgkin lymphoma of germinal center derivation and improved survival. Natkunam, Y., Hsi, E.D., Aoun, P., Zhao, S., Elson, P., Pohlman, B., Naushad, H., Bast, M., Levy, R., Lossos, I.S. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein, a new marker of germinal center B-cell derivation. Natkunam, Y., Lossos, I.S., Taidi, B., Zhao, S., Lu, X., Ding, F., Hammer, A.S., Marafioti, T., Byrne, G.E., Levy, S., Warnke, R.A., Levy, R. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Two newly characterized germinal center B-cell-associated genes, GCET1 and GCET2, have differential expression in normal and neoplastic B cells. Pan, Z., Shen, Y., Du, C., Zhou, G., Rosenwald, A., Staudt, L.M., Greiner, T.C., McKeithan, T.W., Chan, W.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. HGAL is a novel interleukin-4-inducible gene that strongly predicts survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Lossos, I.S., Alizadeh, A.A., Rajapaksa, R., Tibshirani, R., Levy, R. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. HGAL, a lymphoma prognostic biomarker, interacts with the cytoskeleton and mediates the effects of IL-6 on cell migration. Lu, X., Chen, J., Malumbres, R., Cubedo Gil, E., Helfman, D.M., Lossos, I.S. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
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