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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Prognosis

  • The restricted expression and GC specificity of HGAL protein suggest that it may have an important role in the diagnosis of specific lymphomas, and, potentially in the identification of subtypes associated with different prognoses [1].
  • Using Western blot analysis and solid-phase radioimmunoassay, we measured cellular VEGF levels in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) samples from 225 patients and correlated these levels with disease characteristics and prognoses [2].
  • High percentages of medullary and high-grade ductal breast carcinomas accumulate nuclear p53, but these tumors have favorable and poor prognoses, respectively [3].
  • Although combining corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide has greatly improved the prognoses of severe necrotizing vasculitides, some patients continue to have fulminating disease and die within the first year of diagnosis [4].
  • Evaluation of CCND1 amplification could be applicable to the clinical management of laryngeal cancer, allowing identification of patients with poor prognoses [5].

Psychiatry related information on Prognosis


High impact information on Prognosis

  • PATIENTS--A total of 596 patients in nontraumatic coma enrolled in the Study to Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments (SUPPORT), including 247 in the model derivation set and 349 in the model validation set [9].
  • In patients with poor prognoses, most HS1 protein was constitutively phosphorylated, whereas only a fraction was phosphorylated in patients with good prognoses [10].
  • We investigated 14 patients who were completely concordant for IgV(H) mutational status (unmutated vs. mutated), CD38 expression (positive vs. negative), and clinical behavior (progressive vs. stable); these patients were characterized as having either poor or good prognoses [10].
  • Large tumors with low levels of BP-4 have relatively favorable prognoses [11].
  • Ten outpatient crack cocaine smokers with poor prognoses were administered flupenthixol decanoate in an open-label, open-ended trial [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Prognosis


Biological context of Prognosis


Anatomical context of Prognosis


Associations of Prognosis with chemical compounds

  • Patients with dysphoric mania, recognized by Kraepelin to have poor prognoses, have been reported to respond poorly to lithium carbonate but may be among those who respond to carbamazepine [28].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, patients with PPH exhibiting a decrease in TPRi > 50% during short-term PGI2 challenge at the time of diagnosis had longer disease evolutions and better prognoses than patients with a lower vasodilator response [29].
  • Both untreated postmenopausal and tamoxifen-treated premenopausal patients showed identical prognoses significantly inferior to the tamoxifen-treated postmenopausal cohort [30].
  • The intraperitoneal tumor cell implantation model revealed that the prognoses of mice injected with KoTCC-1/B were significantly inferior to those of the mice injected with either KoTCC-1/P or KoTCC-1/C after treatment with cisplatin or Ad5CMV-p53 [31].
  • Luminal, basal-like, normal-like, and erbB2+ subgroups were identified and were shown to have different prognoses [32].

Gene context of Prognosis

  • Patients with FLT3 mutations have poor prognoses [33].
  • The prognoses of patients with VEGF-positive primary tumours were significantly worse than for those with VEGF-negative primary tumours (P = 0.0077) [34].
  • In patients treated by curative surgery, patients with tumors showing both positive-Ang-2 and positive-VEGF condition at the deepest invasive tumor site had significantly poorer prognoses than patients with tumors under other conditions [35].
  • Patients who had positive staining for both VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 exhibited the most unfavorable prognoses [36].
  • BACKGROUND: Although mucin expressions appear to be correlated with prognoses in patients with various cancers, several studies have reported conflicting and inconclusive results on the prognostic significance of mucin expression in gastric carcinomas [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prognosis

  • In comparison of the clinical utility of serum neopterin and urinary neopterin/creatinine concentrations, in patients with gynecological tumors, the latter values (measured by HPLC) discriminated slightly better between patients with favorable and unfavorable prognoses [38].
  • The antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was used as adjunctive treatment in glaucomatous eyes with poor prognoses undergoing filtering surgery [39].
  • INTERVENTION(S): The prognoses of 60 patients (IVF group) who started IVF treatment within 6 months after laparoscopy were compared with those of 58 patients who were managed expectantly without IVF treatment during the same period [40].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results of successful filters in this group of patients with moderate- to high-risk characteristics approach similar figures quoted for trabeculectomies without the adjunctive use of intraoperative 5FU in eyes with poor prognoses with a similar length of follow-up [41].
  • BACKGROUND: Nonsmall cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) are associated with very dismal prognoses, and adjuvant chemotherapy, including irinotecan, taxanes, platin, and vinca alkaloid derivatives, offer patients only slight clinical benefits [42].


  1. Expression of the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein, a new marker of germinal center B-cell derivation. Natkunam, Y., Lossos, I.S., Taidi, B., Zhao, S., Lu, X., Ding, F., Hammer, A.S., Marafioti, T., Byrne, G.E., Levy, S., Warnke, R.A., Levy, R. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical relevance of intracellular vascular endothelial growth factor levels in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Aguayo, A., O'Brien, S., Keating, M., Manshouri, T., Gidel, C., Barlogie, B., Beran, M., Koller, C., Kantarjian, H., Albitar, M. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Nuclear p53 protein accumulates preferentially in medullary and high-grade ductal but rarely in lobular breast carcinomas. Domagala, W., Harezga, B., Szadowska, A., Markiewski, M., Weber, K., Osborn, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Deaths occurring during the first year after treatment onset for polyarteritis nodosa, microscopic polyangiitis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome: a retrospective analysis of causes and factors predictive of mortality based on 595 patients. Bourgarit, A., Le Toumelin, P., Pagnoux, C., Cohen, P., Mahr, A., Le Guern, V., Mouthon, L., Guillevin, L. Medicine (Baltimore) (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Cyclin D1 gene amplification in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas: prognostic significance and clinical implications. Bellacosa, A., Almadori, G., Cavallo, S., Cadoni, G., Galli, J., Ferrandina, G., Scambia, G., Neri, G. Clin. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Klebsiella pneumoniae renal abscess. Chang, S.W., Yen, D.H., Fung, C.P., Liu, C.Y., Chen, K.K., Tiu, C.M., Wang, L.M., Lee, C.H. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The epidemiology of mental disorders in the U.S. Navy: the neuroses. Gunderson, E., Hourani, L.L. Military medicine. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Dysregulation of sphingolipid and sterol metabolism by ApoE4 in HIV dementia. Cutler, R.G., Haughey, N.J., Tammara, A., McArthur, J.C., Nath, A., Reid, R., Vargas, D.L., Pardo, C.A., Mattson, M.P. Neurology (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Identification of comatose patients at high risk for death or severe disability. SUPPORT Investigators. Understand Prognoses and Preferences for Outcomes and Risks of Treatments. Hamel, M.B., Goldman, L., Teno, J., Lynn, J., Davis, R.B., Harrell, F.E., Connors, A.F., Califf, R., Kussin, P., Bellamy, P. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. HS1 protein is differentially expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient subsets with good or poor prognoses. Scielzo, C., Ghia, P., Conti, A., Bachi, A., Guida, G., Geuna, M., Alessio, M., Caligaris-Cappio, F. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Prognostic significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein expression in axillary lymph node-negative breast cancer. Yee, D., Sharma, J., Hilsenbeck, S.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Outpatient treatment of 'crack' cocaine smoking with flupenthixol decanoate. A preliminary report. Gawin, F.H., Allen, D., Humblestone, B. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of progestins in the treatment of breast cancer. Blumenschein, G.R. Semin. Oncol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. The relation of clinical and laboratory findings to the survival of patients with macroglobulinaemia. Carter, P., Koval, J.J., Hobbs, J.R. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Factors affecting immediate mortality of patients with acute myocardial infarction: a nationwide study. Schor, S., Shani, M., Modan, B. Chest (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Reduction in Q wave myocardial infarctions with gemfibrozil in the Helsinki Heart Study. Mänttäri, M., Romo, M., Manninen, V., Koskinen, P., Huttunen, J.K., Heinonen, O.P., Frick, M.H. Am. Heart J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Continuing peritoneal lavage in high-risk peritonitis. Stephen, M., Loewenthal, J. Surgery (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Strong expression of FOXP1 identifies a distinct subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients with poor outcome. Barrans, S.L., Fenton, J.A., Banham, A., Owen, R.G., Jack, A.S. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Aberrant methylation of multiple genes and clinicopathological features in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Ogi, K., Toyota, M., Ohe-Toyota, M., Tanaka, N., Noguchi, M., Sonoda, T., Kohama, G., Tokino, T. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Cyclin D1-CDK4 complex, a possible critical factor for cell proliferation and prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Dong, Y., Sui, L., Sugimoto, K., Tai, Y., Tokuda, M. Int. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Reduced survival in patients with stage-I non-small-cell lung cancer associated with DNA-replication errors. Rosell, R., Pifarré, A., Monzó, M., Astudillo, J., López-Cabrerizo, M.P., Calvo, R., Moreno, I., Sanchez-Céspedes, M., Font, A., Navas-Palacios, J.J. Int. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Thymidylate synthase activity as a prognostic factor in ovarian cancer. Suzuki, M., Ohwada, M., Tamada, T., Tsuru, S. Oncology (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Signal transduction pathways through TRK-A and TRK-B receptors in human neuroblastoma cells. Sugimoto, T., Kuroda, H., Horii, Y., Moritake, H., Tanaka, T., Hattori, S. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index and p53 expression predict outcome for breast cancer patients with four or more lymph node metastases. Takashima, T., Onoda, N., Ishikawa, T., Ogawa, Y., Kato, Y., Fujimoto, Y., Sowa, M., Hirakawa-Y S Chung, K. Int. J. Mol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 in patients with T1 lung adenocarcinoma. Kojima, H., Shijubo, N., Yamada, G., Ichimiya, S., Abe, S., Satoh, M., Sato, N. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Tumor angiogenesis, hepatocyte growth factor, and c-Met expression in endometrial carcinoma. Wagatsuma, S., Konno, R., Sato, S., Yajima, A. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Shoulder destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Classification and prognostic signs in 83 patients followed 5-23 years. Hirooka, A., Wakitani, S., Yoneda, M., Ochi, T. Acta orthopaedica Scandinavica. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Dysphoric mania. Clinical and biological correlates. Post, R.M., Rubinow, D.R., Uhde, T.W., Roy-Byrne, P.P., Linnoila, M., Rosoff, A., Cowdry, R. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Clinical significance of the pulmonary vasodilator response during short-term infusion of prostacyclin in primary pulmonary hypertension. Raffy, O., Azarian, R., Brenot, F., Parent, F., Sitbon, O., Petitpretz, P., Hervé, P., Duroux, P., Dinh-Xuan, A.T., Simonneau, G. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Randomized trial of low-dose chemotherapy added to tamoxifen in patients with receptor-positive and lymph node-positive breast cancer. Jakesz, R., Hausmaninger, H., Haider, K., Kubista, E., Samonigg, H., Gnant, M., Manfreda, D., Tschurtschenthaler, G., Kolb, R., Stierer, M., Fridrik, M., Mlineritsch, B., Steindorfer, P., Mittlböck, M., Steger, G. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in bladder cancer cells inhibits apoptosis induced by cisplatin and adenoviral-mediated p53 gene transfer. Miyake, H., Hanada, N., Nakamura, H., Kagawa, S., Fujiwara, T., Hara, I., Eto, H., Gohji, K., Arakawa, S., Kamidono, S., Saya, H. Oncogene (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Breast cancer molecular subtypes respond differently to preoperative chemotherapy. Rouzier, R., Perou, C.M., Symmans, W.F., Ibrahim, N., Cristofanilli, M., Anderson, K., Hess, K.R., Stec, J., Ayers, M., Wagner, P., Morandi, P., Fan, C., Rabiul, I., Ross, J.S., Hortobagyi, G.N., Pusztai, L. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Tandem duplications of the FLT3 receptor gene are associated with leukemic transformation of myelodysplasia. Horiike, S., Yokota, S., Nakao, M., Iwai, T., Sasai, Y., Kaneko, H., Taniwaki, M., Kashima, K., Fujii, H., Abe, T., Misawa, S. Leukemia (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. In oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with p53 mutation, advanced stage and poor prognosis. Uchida, S., Shimada, Y., Watanabe, G., Tanaka, H., Shibagaki, I., Miyahara, T., Ishigami, S., Imamura, M. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Clinical significance of angiopoietin-2 expression at the deepest invasive tumor site of advanced colorectal carcinoma. Ochiumi, T., Tanaka, S., Oka, S., Hiyama, T., Ito, M., Kitadai, Y., Haruma, K., Chayama, K. Int. J. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma. Arinaga, M., Noguchi, T., Takeno, S., Chujo, M., Miura, T., Uchida, Y. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 expressions in gastric carcinomas: their roles as prognostic indicators. Lee, H.S., Lee, H.K., Kim, H.S., Yang, H.K., Kim, Y.I., Kim, W.H. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Determination of neopterin in serum and urine. Werner, E.R., Bichler, A., Daxenbichler, G., Fuchs, D., Fuith, L.C., Hausen, A., Hetzel, H., Reibnegger, G., Wachter, H. Clin. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Adjusting the dose of 5-fluorouracil after filtration surgery to minimize side effects. Weinreb, R.N. Ophthalmology (1987) [Pubmed]
  40. Benefit of in vitro fertilization treatment for endometriosis-associated infertility. Kodama, H., Fukuda, J., Karube, H., Matsui, T., Shimizu, Y., Tanaka, T. Fertil. Steril. (1996) [Pubmed]
  41. Is the single use of intraoperative 5-fluorouracil in filtering surgery for high-risk cases enough? Watts, P., Karia, N., McAllister, J. Eye (London, England) (1998) [Pubmed]
  42. Development of a chemoresistant orthotopic human nonsmall cell lung carcinoma model in nude mice: analyses of tumor heterogenity in relation to the immunohistochemical levels of expression of cyclooxygenase-2, ornithine decarboxylase, lung-related resistance protein, prostaglandin E synthetase, and glutathione-S-transferase-alpha (GST)-alpha, GST-mu, and GST-pi. Mathieu, A., Remmelink, M., D'Haene, N., Penant, S., Gaussin, J.F., Van Ginckel, R., Darro, F., Kiss, R., Salmon, I. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
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