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Gene Review

aadD  -  aminoglycoside adenyltransferase AadD

Staphylococcus aureus

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Disease relevance of aadD


High impact information on aadD

  • The mec region was found to harbor an insert of the transposon Tn554, which encodes spectinomycin and macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance, and a 4.6-kb segment of DNA that contains the kanamycin resistance gene aadD [3].
  • The aadD gene, encoding tobramycin resistance, failed to be amplified in all cases, indicating absence of the gene or the entire plasmid pUB110 from the mec DNA [4].
  • In staphylococci, linked resistance to the aminoglycosides kanamycin, neomycin, paromomycin, and tobramycin (KmNmPmTmr) is generally mediated by an aadD determinant which encodes production of an adenyltransferase aminoglycoside modifying enzyme, AAD(4',4'') [1].
  • The aadD resistance determinant is located on small multicopy plasmids such as pUB110, and has also been found on large multiresistance plasmids and on the chromosome in some strains [1].
  • Analysis of the nucleotide sequence and restriction map revealed a complete homology of the blmS-containing region of the integrate to wild type pSK41, except for the deletion of aadD and a part of the repU gene [5].

Associations of aadD with chemical compounds

  • Regarding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, 7 strains (12%) appeared to be producing aminoglycoside 4',4"-adenyltransferase AAD(4',4") encoded by aadD without coproduction of bifunctional aminoglycoside 6'-acetyltransferase/2"-phosphotransferase AAC(6')/APH(2") encoded by aacA-aphD (referred to as tobramycin-resistant type, TOBr) [6].
  • AAD(4',4"), encoded by aadD which was reported to be closely linked with bleomycin (BLM)-resistance determinant, could be seen in 100% MRSA strains and ca. 90% strains expressed AAC(6')/APH(2") [6].


  1. 4',4'' adenyltransferase activity on conjugative plasmids isolated from Staphylococcus aureus is encoded on an integrated copy of pUB110. Byrne, M.E., Gillespie, M.T., Skurray, R.A. Plasmid (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel plasmid from Staphylococcus epidermidis specifying resistance to kanamycin, neomycin and tetracycline. Schwarz, S., Gregory, P.D., Werckenthin, C., Curnock, S., Dyke, K.G. J. Med. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Physical mapping of the mec region of an American methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. Dubin, D.T., Matthews, P.R., Chikramane, S.G., Stewart, P.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Nosocomial spread of an unusual methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone that is sensitive to all non-beta-lactam antibiotics, including tobramycin. Pournaras, S., Slavakis, A., Polyzou, A., Sofianou, D., Maniatis, A.N., Tsakris, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Integration analysis of pSK41 in the chromosome of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus K-1. McElgunn, C.J., Zahurul, M., Bhuyian, A., Sugiyama, M. J. Basic Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates to various antimicrobial agents. IV. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6')/APH(2") is responsible for arbekacin-resistance enhanced by bleomycin. Inouye, Y., Hashimoto, M., Sugiyama, M., Takesue, Y., Santo, T., Yokoyama, T. Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
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