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Chemical Compound Review

Tobracin     (2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-4-amino-2- [(1S,2S,3R,4S...

Synonyms: Tobradex, Tobralex, Nebicin, Brulamycin, NEBRAMYCIN, ...
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Disease relevance of NEBRAMYCIN


Psychiatry related information on NEBRAMYCIN


High impact information on NEBRAMYCIN


Chemical compound and disease context of NEBRAMYCIN


Biological context of NEBRAMYCIN


Anatomical context of NEBRAMYCIN

  • A decrease in the density of P. aeruginosa in sputum by a factor of 100 (P < 0.001) was found during all periods of tobramycin administration [6].
  • In the tobramycin group, the density of P. aeruginosa decreased by an average of 0.8 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per gram of expectorated sputum from week 0 to week 20, as compared with an increase of 0.3 log10 CFU per gram in the placebo group (P<0.001) [1].
  • All patients admitted to the ICU who were thought likely to stay in the unit for at least 5 days and to need intubation for longer than 48 h were enrolled and randomly allocated to groups receiving placebo or SDD (amphotericin, colistin, and tobramycin applied to the oropharynx and enterally); all patients received intravenous cefotaxime for 72 h [16].
  • Consistent with this, treatment of SMA patient fibroblasts with tobramycin and amikacin resulted in a quantitative increase in SMN-positive gems and an overall increase in detectable SMN protein [17].
  • CONCLUSION: The therapeutic strategy of ciprofloxacin and rifampin followed by once-daily vancomycin and tobramycin markedly reduced the incidence of infection and virtually eliminated bacteremia in both purged and nonpurged bone marrow recipients [18].

Associations of NEBRAMYCIN with other chemical compounds


Gene context of NEBRAMYCIN

  • We then investigated whether the daily administration of the aminoglycoside antibiotics gentamicin or tobramycin could restore the expression of a detectable level of CFTR protein [24].
  • Regarding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, 7 strains (12%) appeared to be producing aminoglycoside 4',4"-adenyltransferase AAD(4',4") encoded by aadD without coproduction of bifunctional aminoglycoside 6'-acetyltransferase/2"-phosphotransferase AAC(6')/APH(2") encoded by aacA-aphD (referred to as tobramycin-resistant type, TOBr) [25].
  • IL-6 levels in rats treated with cefuroxime were lower than in rats treated with tobramycin or vancomycin and the control group [26].
  • Are recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 and tobramycin compatible? An experiment in rats [27].
  • Other aminoglycosides such as tobramycin, streptomycin, and neomycin also inhibited PTH-stimulated Mg2+ entry and cAMP formation [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NEBRAMYCIN


  1. Intermittent administration of inhaled tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis Inhaled Tobramycin Study Group. Ramsey, B.W., Pepe, M.S., Quan, J.M., Otto, K.L., Montgomery, A.B., Williams-Warren, J., Vasiljev-K, M., Borowitz, D., Bowman, C.M., Marshall, B.C., Marshall, S., Smith, A.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Aerosolized tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis. Ashby, B.L., Stern, D.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Double-blind comparison of the nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of gentamicin and tobramycin. Smith, C.R., Lipsky, J.J., Laskin, O.L., Hellmann, D.B., Mellits, E.D., Longstreth, J., Lietman, P.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. A transposon, Tn732, encoding gentamicin/tobramycin resistance. Nugent, M.E., Bone, D.H., Datta, N. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Day-night treatment difference of tobramycin serum and intrarenal drug distribution and nephrotoxicity in rats: effects of fasting. Lin, L., Grenier, L., LeBrun, M., Bergeron, M.G., Thibault, L., Labrecque, G., Beauchamp, D. Chronobiol. Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Efficacy of aerosolized tobramycin in patients with cystic fibrosis. Ramsey, B.W., Dorkin, H.L., Eisenberg, J.D., Gibson, R.L., Harwood, I.R., Kravitz, R.M., Schidlow, D.V., Wilmott, R.W., Astley, S.J., McBurnie, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased glomerular filtration rate in patients with major burns and its effect on the pharmacokinetics of tobramycin. Loirat, P., Rohan, J., Baillet, A., Beaufils, F., David, R., Chapman, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Single-dose peroperative antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal surgery. Griffiths, D.A., Simpson, R.A., Shorey, B.A., Speller, D.C., Williams, N.B. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Five-year surveillance of aminoglycoside usage in a university hospital. Betts, R.F., Valenti, W.M., Chapman, S.W., Chonmaitree, T., Mowrer, G., Pincus, P., Messner, M., Robertson, R. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Microbial causes of proven pelvic inflammatory disease and efficacy of clindamycin and tobramycin. Wasserheit, J.N., Bell, T.A., Kiviat, N.B., Wølner-Hanssen, P., Zabriskie, V., Kirby, B.D., Prince, E.C., Holmes, K.K., Stamm, W.E., Eschenbach, D.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Cefotaxime compared with nafcillin plus tobramycin for serious bacterial infections. A randomized, double-blind trial. Smith, C.R., Ambinder, R., Lipsky, J.J., Petty, B.G., Israel, E., Levitt, R., Mellits, E.D., Rocco, L., Longstreth, J., Lietman, P.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Right-sided Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers: two-week combination therapy. Chambers, H.F., Miller, R.T., Newman, M.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella and Escherichia coli in nursing homes. Wiener, J., Quinn, J.P., Bradford, P.A., Goering, R.V., Nathan, C., Bush, K., Weinstein, R.A. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Phagocytosis of unopsonized Pseudomonas aeruginosa by murine macrophages is a two-step process requiring glucose. Speert, D.P., Gordon, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Binding of tobramycin leads to conformational changes in yeast tRNA(Asp) and inhibition of aminoacylation. Walter, F., Pütz, J., Giegé, R., Westhof, E. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Double-blind study of selective decontamination of the digestive tract in intensive care. Hammond, J.M., Potgieter, P.D., Saunders, G.L., Forder, A.A. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. A non-sequence-specific requirement for SMN protein activity: the role of aminoglycosides in inducing elevated SMN protein levels. Wolstencroft, E.C., Mattis, V., Bajer, A.A., Young, P.J., Lorson, C.L. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Sequential prophylactic oral and empiric once-daily parenteral antibiotics for neutropenia and fever after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow support. Gilbert, C., Meisenberg, B., Vredenburgh, J., Ross, M., Hussein, A., Perfect, J., Peters, W.P. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Cost effectiveness of gentamicin and tobramycin. Singer, F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Antibiotics as intermicrobial signaling agents instead of weapons. Linares, J.F., Gustafsson, I., Baquero, F., Martinez, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Choice of drug and dosage regimen. Two important risk factors for aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity. De Broe, M.E., Giuliano, R.A., Verpooten, G.A. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Nucleotide sequence of the AAD(2'') aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase determinant aadB. Evolutionary relationship of this region with those surrounding aadA in R538-1 and dhfrII in R388. Cameron, F.H., Groot Obbink, D.J., Ackerman, V.P., Hall, R.M. Nucleic Acids Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Results of a multicenter trial comparing imipenem/cilastatin to tobramycin/clindamycin for intra-abdominal infections. Solomkin, J.S., Dellinger, E.P., Christou, N.V., Busuttil, R.W. Ann. Surg. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Aminoglycoside suppression of a premature stop mutation in a Cftr-/- mouse carrying a human CFTR-G542X transgene. Du, M., Jones, J.R., Lanier, J., Keeling, K.M., Lindsey, J.R., Tousson, A., Bebök, Z., Whitsett, J.A., Dey, C.R., Colledge, W.H., Evans, M.J., Sorscher, E.J., Bedwell, D.M. J. Mol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates to various antimicrobial agents. IV. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6')/APH(2") is responsible for arbekacin-resistance enhanced by bleomycin. Inouye, Y., Hashimoto, M., Sugiyama, M., Takesue, Y., Santo, T., Yokoyama, T. Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 responses after antibiotic treatment in experimental chronic Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis. García-Alvarez, F., Monzón, M., Grasa, J.M., Laclériga, A., Amorena, B., García-Alvarez, I., Navarro-Zorraquino, M., Alvarez, F.G. Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Are recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 and tobramycin compatible? An experiment in rats. Kawaguchi, A.T., Reddi, A.H., Olson, S.A., Yinger, K.E., Moehring, H.D. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Aminoglycosides inhibit hormone-stimulated Mg2+ uptake in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. Kang, H.S., Kerstan, D., Dai, L., Ritchie, G., Quamme, G.A. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Removal of tobramycin during plasma exchange therapy. Appelgate, R., Schwartz, D., Bennett, W.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Risk factors for nephrotoxicity in patients treated with aminoglycosides. Moore, R.D., Smith, C.R., Lipsky, J.J., Mellits, E.D., Lietman, P.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Selection for Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variants due to growth in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hoffman, L.R., D??ziel, E., D'Argenio, D.A., L??pine, F., Emerson, J., McNamara, S., Gibson, R.L., Ramsey, B.W., Miller, S.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Intraleukocytic sequestration as a cause of persistent Staphylococcus aureus peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Buggy, B.P., Schaberg, D.R., Swartz, R.D. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
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