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Gene Review

aacA-aphD  -  bifunctional aminoglycoside modifying...

Staphylococcus aureus

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Disease relevance of aacA-aphD


High impact information on aacA-aphD

  • Conditions were optimized to amplify fragments of mecA (encoding methicillin resistance), aacA-aphD (aminoglycoside resistance), tetK, tetM (tetracycline resistance), erm(A), erm(C) (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance), vat(A), vat(B), and vat(C) (streptogramin A resistance) simultaneously in one PCR amplification [3].
  • The sequence analysis of the 5'-adjacent region of the aacA-aphD structural gene in MRSA K-1 showed that 12 bp are deleted from the aacA-aphD promoter region when compared with that in MRSA B-26, which exhibits lower resistance to Abk than K-1 [4].
  • In order to assess the role of antibiotics in the environment on the spread of resistance factors, the impact of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics in sewage on gene transfer was investigated using conjugative gentamicin resistance (aacA-aphD) plasmids of Staphylococcus aureus [5].
  • The nucleotide sequence of IS256 described here, together with the sequence of the aacA-aphD gene reported previously [Rouch et al., J. Gen. Microbiol. 133 (1987) 3039-3052], completes the entire sequence of Tn4001, which totals 4566 bp [6].
  • The array is equipped with oligonucleotide capture probes for the detection of 10 clinically and therapeutically relevant antibiotic resistance genes and -mutations (mecA, aacA-aphD, tetK, tetM, vat(A), vat(B), vat(C), erm(A), erm(C), grlA-mutation) as well as several control probes [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of aacA-aphD


Biological context of aacA-aphD


Associations of aacA-aphD with chemical compounds

  • Regarding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes, 7 strains (12%) appeared to be producing aminoglycoside 4',4"-adenyltransferase AAD(4',4") encoded by aadD without coproduction of bifunctional aminoglycoside 6'-acetyltransferase/2"-phosphotransferase AAC(6')/APH(2") encoded by aacA-aphD (referred to as tobramycin-resistant type, TOBr) [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aacA-aphD


  1. The aacA-aphD gentamicin and kanamycin resistance determinant of Tn4001 from Staphylococcus aureus: expression and nucleotide sequence analysis. Rouch, D.A., Byrne, M.E., Kong, Y.C., Skurray, R.A. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. High-level gentamicin resistance among enterococci. Sahm, D.F., Gilmore, M.S. Dev. Biol. Stand. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of nine clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Strommenger, B., Kettlitz, C., Werner, G., Witte, W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular mechanism for the enhancement of arbekacin resistance in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Matsuo, H., Kobayashi, M., Kumagai, T., Kuwabara, M., Sugiyama, M. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Impact of antibiotics on conjugational resistance gene transfer in Staphylococcus aureus in sewage. Ohlsen, K., Ternes, T., Werner, G., Wallner, U., Löffler, D., Ziebuhr, W., Witte, W., Hacker, J. Environ. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequence analysis of IS256 from the Staphylococcus aureus gentamicin-tobramycin-kanamycin-resistance transposon Tn4001. Byrne, M.E., Rouch, D.A., Skurray, R.A. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. DNA microarray for the detection of therapeutically relevant antibiotic resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Strommenger, B., Schmidt, C., Werner, G., Roessle-Lorch, B., Bachmann, T.T., Witte, W. Mol. Cell. Probes (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Detection by polymerase chain reaction of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates of epidemic phage types. Belgian Study Group of Hospital Infections (GDEPIH/GOSPIZ). Vanhoof, R., Godard, C., Content, J., Nyssen, H.J., Hannecart-Pokorni, E. J. Med. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. An epidemiological assessment of coagulase-negative staphylococci from an intensive care unit. Walcher-Salesse, S., Monzon-Moreno, C., Aubert, S., el Solh, N. J. Med. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates to various antimicrobial agents. IV. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme AAC(6')/APH(2") is responsible for arbekacin-resistance enhanced by bleomycin. Inouye, Y., Hashimoto, M., Sugiyama, M., Takesue, Y., Santo, T., Yokoyama, T. Hiroshima J. Med. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
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