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Gene Review

APEX2  -  APEX nuclease (apurinic/apyrimidinic...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AP endonuclease 2, AP endonuclease XTH2, APE2, APEX nuclease 2, APEX nuclease-like 2, ...
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High impact information on APEX2

  • Prompted by homology modeling studies, we found that substitutions in the hydrophobic pocket of Ape1 (comprised of F266, W280 and L282) reduce abasic incision potency about fourfold to 450,000-fold, while introduction of an ExoIII-like pocket into Ape2 enhances its AP endonuclease function [1].
  • Mammals also possess a second protein (Ape2) with sequence homology to ExoIII, but this protein exhibits comparatively weak AP site-specific and 3'-nuclease activities [1].
  • METHODS: The Apex 2 medical research expedition provided the opportunity to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) in 76 healthy lowlanders [2].
  • Here we investigated the intracellular distribution of GFP in an amphibian and in various mammalian cell lines (XTH2, CHO-K1, HaCaT, MDCK, NIH-3T3) by confocal laser scanning microscopy [3].
  • An Ape2 green fluorescent fusion protein localized predominantly to the nucleus of HeLa cells, indicating a nuclear function; this localization was dependent on the C-terminal domain [4].

Biological context of APEX2

  • Human Ape2 protein has a 3'-5' exonuclease activity that acts preferentially on mismatched base pairs [5].
  • Much less is known about Ape2, but its importance is emphasized by the growth retardation and dyshematopoiesis accompanied by G2/M arrest phenotype of the APE2-null mice [5].
  • Mutation of the active-site residue Asp 277 to Ala in Ape2 inactivates all these activities [5].

Anatomical context of APEX2


Physical interactions of APEX2


Other interactions of APEX2


  1. Determinants in nuclease specificity of Ape1 and Ape2, human homologues of Escherichia coli exonuclease III. Hadi, M.Z., Ginalski, K., Nguyen, L.H., Wilson, D.M. J. Mol. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. What happens to intraocular pressure at high altitude? Somner, J.E., Morris, D.S., Scott, K.M., Maccormick, I.J., Aspinall, P., Dhillon, B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. GFP associates with microfilaments in fixed cells. Schmitz, H.D., Bereiter-Hahn, J. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Second human protein with homology to the Escherichia coli abasic endonuclease exonuclease III. Hadi, M.Z., Wilson, D.M. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Human Ape2 protein has a 3'-5' exonuclease activity that acts preferentially on mismatched base pairs. Burkovics, P., Szukacsov, V., Unk, I., Haracska, L. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Human APE2 protein is mostly localized in the nuclei and to some extent in the mitochondria, while nuclear APE2 is partly associated with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Tsuchimoto, D., Sakai, Y., Sakumi, K., Nishioka, K., Sasaki, M., Fujiwara, T., Nakabeppu, Y. Nucleic Acids Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
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