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Gene Review

N  -  N

Human metapneumovirus

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Disease relevance of N


High impact information on N

  • In African green monkeys immunized intranasally and intratracheally, the mean peak titer of the P chimera was reduced 100- and 1,000-fold in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, whereas the N chimera was reduced only 10-fold in the lower respiratory tract [2].
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect segments of the M (matrix), N (nucleoprotein), and F (fusion) genes of human metapneumovirus in bronchoalveolar fluid from 30 infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis [4].
  • In a first evaluation of 20 viral cultures with characteristics compatible with hMPV cytopathic effect, the PCR positivity rates were 100, 90, 75, 60, and 55% using primers for the N, L, M, P, and F genes [1].
  • The analytic sensitivity of the real-time RT-PCR assay for the hMPV N gene was 100 copies using a transcribed viral plasmid [1].
  • The ELISA-N is a simple, objective, and specific serological test useful for detecting anti-hMPV antibodies following group A or B viral infections, which should permit a better understanding of the epidemiology of this virus [5].

Biological context of N


Anatomical context of N

  • Peptide antibodies to the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of the aMPV N protein confirmed presence of these products in both aMPV/C/US/Co- and aMPV/A/UK/3b-infected Vero cells [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of N

  • In conclusion, real-time PCR assays aimed at amplifying the N and L genes which are coding for two internal viral proteins appear particularly suitable for hMPV diagnostic [1].
  • The results indicated that aMPV N peptide 1 can be used as a universal ELISA antigen to detect antibodies for all aMPV serotypes [6].


  1. Comparative evaluation of real-time PCR assays for detection of the human metapneumovirus. Côté, S., Abed, Y., Boivin, G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Chimeric recombinant human metapneumoviruses with the nucleoprotein or phosphoprotein open reading frame replaced by that of avian metapneumovirus exhibit improved growth in vitro and attenuation in vivo. Pham, Q.N., Biacchesi, S., Skiadopoulos, M.H., Murphy, B.R., Collins, P.L., Buchholz, U.J. J. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Development of a reverse-genetics system for Avian pneumovirus demonstrates that the small hydrophobic (SH) and attachment (G) genes are not essential for virus viability. Naylor, C.J., Brown, P.A., Edworthy, N., Ling, R., Jones, R.C., Savage, C.E., Easton, A.J. J. Gen. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Human metapneumovirus in severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Greensill, J., McNamara, P.S., Dove, W., Flanagan, B., Smyth, R.L., Hart, C.A. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human metapneumovirus serology based on a recombinant viral protein. Hamelin, M.E., Boivin, G. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Development of a nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a synthetic peptide antigen for detection of avian metapneumovirus antibodies in Turkey sera. Alvarez, R., Njenga, M.K., Scott, M., Seal, B.S. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of a truncated nucleoprotein in avian metapneumovirus-infected cells encoded by a second AUG, in-frame to the full-length gene. Alvarez, R., Seal, B.S. Virol. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
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