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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Bronchiolitis


High impact information on Bronchiolitis


Chemical compound and disease context of Bronchiolitis


Biological context of Bronchiolitis


Anatomical context of Bronchiolitis

  • These in vitro findings showing that dex failed to consistently inhibit all the RSV-induced release of neutrophil inflammatory mediators may explain the variable efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of RSV bronchiolitis [20].
  • The percentage of BAL eosinophils correlated significantly with levels of BAL IL-5 in both the asthma group (r = 0.80, P =.000) and the bronchiolitis group (r = 0.82, P =.000) [21].
  • These results are in agreement with the reduced cyclic adenosine monophosphate response to different agonists demonstrated in leukocytes from patients with asthma, and suggest that this refractoriness could be one of the precipitating events in the development of asthma observed in a large proportion of infants who have had bronchiolitis [22].
  • The IL-4/interferon-gamma ratio for infants with acute bronchiolitis was elevated in nasal lavage fluid on both Days 1-2 (p = 0.014) and Days 5-7 (p = 0.001) of the illness compared with infants with upper respiratory tract infection alone [23].
  • Therefore, the inflammatory process in RSV-induced bronchiolitis appears to be triggered by the infection of epithelial cells and further amplified via mechanisms driven by IFN-gamma and by the secretion of eosinophil chemokines [24].

Gene context of Bronchiolitis

  • Critical role for the chemokine MCP-1/CCR2 in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome [25].
  • Critical role for CXCR3 chemokine biology in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome [26].
  • Smad3 deficiency ameliorates experimental obliterative bronchiolitis in a heterotopic tracheal transplantation model [27].
  • Additionally, MIP-1-alpha, IL-8, and RANTES concentrations were measured from lower respiratory secretions obtained from 10 intubated infants (0-24 mo) with RSV bronchiolitis, and from 10 control subjects [28].
  • IL-10 responses during the acute phase of RSV bronchiolitis were comparable to those in healthy control subjects [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bronchiolitis


  1. Association between acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Freudenberger, T.D., Madtes, D.K., Curtis, J.R., Cummings, P., Storer, B.E., Hackman, R.C. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. 2'-5' Oligoadenylate synthetase plays a critical role in interferon-gamma inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus infection of human epithelial cells. Behera, A.K., Kumar, M., Lockey, R.F., Mohapatra, S.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The roles of the myofibroblast in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of sites of active extracellular matrix synthesis. Kuhn, C., McDonald, J.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. A review of the respiratory effects of smoking cocaine. Ettinger, N.A., Albin, R.J. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Increased expression of type VI collagen in lung fibrosis. Specks, U., Nerlich, A., Colby, T.V., Wiest, I., Timpl, R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Bronchiolitis and bronchitis in connective tissue disease. A possible relationship to the use of penicillamine. Epler, G.R., Snider, G.L., Gaensler, E.A., Cathcart, E.S., FitzGerald, M.X., Carrington, C.B. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  7. BLT1-mediated T cell trafficking is critical for rejection and obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation. Medoff, B.D., Seung, E., Wain, J.C., Means, T.K., Campanella, G.S., Islam, S.A., Thomas, S.Y., Ginns, L.C., Grabie, N., Lichtman, A.H., Tager, A.M., Luster, A.D. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Recipient iNOS but not eNOS deficiency reduces luminal narrowing in tracheal allografts. Minamoto, K., Pinsky, D.J. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of CXCR2/CXCR2 ligands in vascular remodeling during bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Belperio, J.A., Keane, M.P., Burdick, M.D., Gomperts, B., Xue, Y.Y., Hong, K., Mestas, J., Ardehali, A., Mehrad, B., Saggar, R., Lynch, J.P., Ross, D.J., Strieter, R.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Dexamethasone in bronchiolitis: a randomised controlled trial. Roosevelt, G., Sheehan, K., Grupp-Phelan, J., Tanz, R.R., Listernick, R. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Free-base cocaine use associated with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Patel, R.C., Dutta, D., Schonfeld, S.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia caused by ticlopidine. Alonso-Martinez, J.L., Elejalde-Guerra, J.I., Larrínaga-Liñero, D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Respiratory syncytial virus infection: immune response, immunopathogenesis, and treatment. Domachowske, J.B., Rosenberg, H.F. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Increased risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease, obstructive bronchiolitis, and alopecia with busulfan versus total body irradiation: long-term results of a randomized trial in allogeneic marrow recipients with leukemia. Nordic Bone Marrow Transplantation Group. Ringdén, O., Remberger, M., Ruutu, T., Nikoskelainen, J., Volin, L., Vindeløv, L., Parkkali, T., Lenhoff, S., Sallerfors, B., Mellander, L., Ljungman, P., Jacobsen, N. Blood (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Monocyte IL-10 production during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is associated with recurrent wheezing in a one-year follow-up study. Bont, L., Heijnen, C.J., Kavelaars, A., van Aalderen, W.M., Brus, F., Draaisma, J.T., Geelen, S.M., Kimpen, J.L. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of nebulized epinephrine on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in bronchiolitis. Numa, A.H., Williams, G.D., Dakin, C.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Genetic variation at the IL10 gene locus is associated with severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Wilson, J., Rowlands, K., Rockett, K., Moore, C., Lockhart, E., Sharland, M., Kwiatkowski, D., Hull, J. J. Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Haplotype mapping of the bronchiolitis susceptibility locus near IL8. Hull, J., Rowlands, K., Lockhart, E., Sharland, M., Moore, C., Hanchard, N., Kwiatkowski, D.P. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Bronchial asthma and hyperreactivity after early childhood bronchiolitis or pneumonia. An 8-year follow-up study. Korppi, M., Kuikka, L., Reijonen, T., Remes, K., Juntunen-Backman, K., Launiala, K. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Respiratory syncytial virus stimulates neutrophil degranulation and chemokine release. Jaovisidha, P., Peeples, M.E., Brees, A.A., Carpenter, L.R., Moy, J.N. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytokine profiles in acute asthma and acute bronchiolitis. Kim, C.K., Kim, S.W., Park, C.S., Kim, B.I., Kang, H., Koh, Y.Y. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Nonspecific refractoriness to adenylyl cyclase stimulation in alveolar macrophages from infants with recurrent bronchiolitis. Galoppin, L., de Blic, J., Azevedo, I., Scheinmann, P., Vargaftig, B.B., Bachelet, M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine imbalance in acute respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Legg, J.P., Hussain, I.R., Warner, J.A., Johnston, S.L., Warner, J.O. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Cell-specific expression of RANTES, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha by lower airway epithelial cells and eosinophils infected with respiratory syncytial virus. Olszewska-Pazdrak, B., Casola, A., Saito, T., Alam, R., Crowe, S.E., Mei, F., Ogra, P.L., Garofalo, R.P. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Critical role for the chemokine MCP-1/CCR2 in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Belperio, J.A., Keane, M.P., Burdick, M.D., Lynch, J.P., Xue, Y.Y., Berlin, A., Ross, D.J., Kunkel, S.L., Charo, I.F., Strieter, R.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Critical role for CXCR3 chemokine biology in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Belperio, J.A., Keane, M.P., Burdick, M.D., Lynch, J.P., Xue, Y.Y., Li, K., Ross, D.J., Strieter, R.M. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Smad3 deficiency ameliorates experimental obliterative bronchiolitis in a heterotopic tracheal transplantation model. Ramirez, A.M., Takagawa, S., Sekosan, M., Jaffe, H.A., Varga, J., Roman, J. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Respiratory syncytical virus-induced chemokine expression in the lower airways: eosinophil recruitment and degranulation. Harrison, A.M., Bonville, C.A., Rosenberg, H.F., Domachowske, J.B. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation: a fibroproliferative disorder associated with platelet-derived growth factor. Hertz, M.I., Henke, C.A., Nakhleh, R.E., Harmon, K.R., Marinelli, W.A., Fox, J.M., Kubo, S.H., Shumway, S.J., Bolman, R.M., Bitterman, P.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia is associated with obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation: role of IL-8. DiGiovine, B., Lynch, J.P., Martinez, F.J., Flint, A., Whyte, R.I., Iannettoni, M.D., Arenberg, D.A., Burdick, M.D., Glass, M.C., Wilke, C.A., Morris, S.B., Kunkel, S.L., Strieter, R.M. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Collagens I and III in a porcine bronchial model of obliterative bronchiolitis. Alho, H.S., Inkinen, K.A., Salminen, U.S., Maasilta, P.K., Taskinen, E.I., Glumoff, V., Vuorio, E.I., Ikonen, T.S., Harjula, A.L. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Adenovirus-mediated interleukin-10 gene transfer inhibits post-transplant fibrous airway obliteration in an animal model of bronchiolitis obliterans. Boehler, A., Chamberlain, D., Xing, Z., Slutsky, A.S., Jordana, M., Gauldie, J., Liu, M., Keshavjee, S. Hum. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
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