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Gene Review

Ptth  -  Prothoracicotropic hormone

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG13687, Dmel\CG13687, PTTH, phm, ptth
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High impact information on Ptth

  • PER-positive neurons and their projections are strategically positioned for regulating prothoracicotropic hormone and eclosion hormone, two neurohormones under circadian control [1].
  • The prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) of Drosophila melanogaster is a modulator of ecdysteroid (molting hormone) synthesis and was isolated and characterized from extracts of whole larvae (approximately 4 x 10(5) larvae) [2].
  • The molecular weight of the purified PTTH was 45 kDa and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis indicated that those analyzed sequences displayed no significant homology with known peptides or peptide hormones, including PTTH from the silkmoth, Bombyx mori [2].
  • Once critical weight is reached, juvenile hormone (JH) titers decline, resulting in the release of prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) at the next photoperiod gate and thereby inducing metamorphosis [3].
  • Brain neurons immunoreactive with antibodies to bombyxin, PTTH, and DH are in strikingly similar positions to their lepidopteran counterparts, indicating that at least some Drosophila neuroendocrine cells are homologous to those of lepidopterans [4].

Biological context of Ptth


Anatomical context of Ptth


Associations of Ptth with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Ptth

  • Two of these mutants, dlg and dco, show abnormally strong immunoreactivity for allatotropin during the extended larval period and the former also show increased staining with the PTTH antibody [4].
  • The ecdysteroidogenic P450 Cyp302a1/disembodied from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is transcriptionally regulated by prothoracicotropic hormone [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ptth

  • Western blot analysis indicated that the native form of Drosophila PTTH was a single 66-kDa polypeptide with N-linked carbohydrate chains and intrachain disulfide bonds [2].


  1. Circadian clock neurons in the silkmoth Antheraea pernyi: novel mechanisms of Period protein regulation. Sauman, I., Reppert, S.M. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Purification and characterization of the prothoracicotropic hormone of Drosophila melanogaster. Kim, A.J., Cha, G.H., Kim, K., Gilbert, L.I., Lee, C.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of the prothoracic gland in determining critical weight for metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Mirth, C., Truman, J.W., Riddiford, L.M. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Neurons producing specific neuropeptides in the central nervous system of normal and pupariation-delayed Drosophila. Zitnan, D., Sehnal, F., Bryant, P.J. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Circadian orchestration of developmental hormones in the insect, Rhodnius prolixus. Steel, C.G., Vafopoulou, X. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Neural factors that stimulate ecdysteroid synthesis by the larval ring gland of Drosophila melanogaster. Henrich, V.C., Pak, M.D., Gilbert, L.I. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Imaginal disc-autonomous expression of a defect in sensory bristle patterning caused by the lethal(3)ecdysoneless1 (1(3)ecd1) mutation of Drosophila melanogaster. Sliter, T.J. Development (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. cDNA cloning and expression of a hormone-regulated heat shock protein (hsc 70) from the prothoracic gland of Manduca sexta. Rybczynski, R., Gilbert, L.I. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Cell-specific expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein under the control of neuropeptide gene promoters in the brain of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus-derived vectors. Moto, K., Kojima, H., Kurihara, M., Iwami, M., Matsumoto, S. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The ecdysteroidogenic P450 Cyp302a1/disembodied from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is transcriptionally regulated by prothoracicotropic hormone. Niwa, R., Sakudoh, T., Namiki, T., Saida, K., Fujimoto, Y., Kataoka, H. Insect Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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