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Gene Review

Pfl01_1193  -  virulence protein

Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1

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Disease relevance of Pfl_1193

  • Pseudomonas syringae is a member of an important group of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens of plants and animals that depend on a type III secretion system to inject virulence effector proteins into host cells [1].
  • The conserved two-component regulatory system GacS/GacA determines the expression of extracellular products and virulence factors in a variety of Gram-negative bacteria [2].
  • The ToxRS system in Vibrio cholerae plays a central role in the modulation of virulence gene expression in response to environmental stimuli [3].
  • Phenazines, including pyocyanin and iodonin, are biologically active compounds that are believed to confer producing organisms with a competitive growth advantage, and also are thought to be virulence factors in certain diseases including cystic fibrosis [4].
  • Two-component regulators involved in the global control of virulence in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora [5].

High impact information on Pfl_1193

  • The antibiotic properties of pyocyanin, produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were recognized in the 1890s, although this blue phenazine is now known to be a virulence factor in human disease [6].
  • By using survival in amoeba as a selection, we have isolated mutant strains with a range of phenotypes; and we have potentially identified new L. pneumophila virulence genes [7].
  • An integration of multiple signalling inputs mediated by ToxR, -S, and -T controls virulence gene expression leading to cholera toxin (CT) production [3].
  • Transcription of varA appears to be independent of ToxR, and overexpression of the regulators tcpPH and toxT from plasmids in the varA mutant restored wild-type levels of CT production and the ability to autoagglutinate. varA represents an additional modulating factor in the coordinate expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae [3].
  • Effector genes of some plant-pathogenic bacteria, including some members of the avrBs3/pthA effector gene family from Xanthomonas spp., confer not only genotype-specific disease resistance but also pathogen aggressiveness or virulence [8].

Biological context of Pfl_1193

  • Insertion mutants in the exp (extracellular enzyme production) loci exhibit pleiotropic defects in virulence and the growth-phase-dependent transcriptional activation of genes encoding extracellular enzymes [5].
  • Phenazines produced by members of several bacterial genera are biologically active metabolites that function in microbial competitiveness, the suppression of soil-borne plant diseases and virulence in infectious disease [9].

Anatomical context of Pfl_1193

  • Introduction of the corresponding wild-type alleles to the mutants complemented both the lack of virulence and the impaired production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes [5].

Associations of Pfl_1193 with chemical compounds


  1. Pseudomonas syringae Hrp type III secretion system and effector proteins. Collmer, A., Badel, J.L., Charkowski, A.O., Deng, W.L., Fouts, D.E., Ramos, A.R., Rehm, A.H., Anderson, D.M., Schneewind, O., van Dijk, K., Alfano, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Global GacA-steered control of cyanide and exoprotease production in Pseudomonas fluorescens involves specific ribosome binding sites. Blumer, C., Heeb, S., Pessi, G., Haas, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Modulation of expression of the ToxR regulon in Vibrio cholerae by a member of the two-component family of response regulators. Wong, S.M., Carroll, P.A., Rahme, L.G., Ausubel, F.M., Calderwood, S.B. Infect. Immun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure and function of the phenazine biosynthesis protein PhzF from Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. Parsons, J.F., Song, F., Parsons, L., Calabrese, K., Eisenstein, E., Ladner, J.E. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Two-component regulators involved in the global control of virulence in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Eriksson, A.R., Andersson, R.A., Pirhonen, M., Palva, E.T. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Structure and function of the phenazine biosynthetic protein PhzF from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Blankenfeldt, W., Kuzin, A.P., Skarina, T., Korniyenko, Y., Tong, L., Bayer, P., Janning, P., Thomashow, L.S., Mavrodi, D.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of Legionella pneumophila genes important for infection of amoebas by signature-tagged mutagenesis. Polesky, A.H., Ross, J.T., Falkow, S., Tompkins, L.S. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Suppression of defense response in plants by the avrBs3/pthA gene family of Xanthomonas spp. Fujikawa, T., Ishihara, H., Leach, J.E., Tsuyumu, S. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of PhzF, a key enzyme in the phenazine-biosynthesis pathway from Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79. Mavrodi, D.V., Bleimling, N., Thomashow, L.S., Blankenfeldt, W. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Detoxification of oxalic acid by pseudomonas fluorescens strain pfMDU2: implications for the biological control of rice sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Nagarajkumar, M., Jayaraj, J., Muthukrishnan, S., Bhaskaran, R., Velazhahan, R. Microbiol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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