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MeSH Review

Communicable Diseases

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Disease relevance of Communicable Diseases


Psychiatry related information on Communicable Diseases


High impact information on Communicable Diseases

  • Despite these complexities, stimulation or blockade of TNFR family costimulators shows promise for several therapeutic applications, including cancer, infectious disease, transplantation, and autoimmunity [8].
  • Levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (3385 +/- 195 units per milliliter) and CD8 (4145 +/- 437 units per milliliter) were higher in patients with measles than in those with other infectious diseases (2377 +/- 440, P = 0.003; 2399 +/- 771, P = 0.0374) or in healthy children (865 +/- 138, P less than 0.0001; 1026 +/- 169, P less than 0.0001) [9].
  • We investigated the role of granulysin in human infectious disease using leprosy as a model [10].
  • The recessive autosomal disorder known as ICF syndrome (for immunodeficiency, centromere instability and facial anomalies; Mendelian Inheritance in Man number 242860) is characterized by variable reductions in serum immunoglobulin levels which cause most ICF patients to succumb to infectious diseases before adulthood [11].
  • In the heterozygous state, increased resistance to infectious diseases may maintain mutant CFTR alleles at high levels in selected populations [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Communicable Diseases


Biological context of Communicable Diseases

  • In addition to implicating microbial agents in nontraditional infectious diseases, the use of methods such as broad-range polymerase chain reaction, representational difference analysis, expression library screening, and host gene expression profiling may force a reassessment of the concepts of microbial disease causation [18].
  • Further studies on this peculiar aspect of the bacteria-host cell interactions, which leads to the outbreak of infectious diseases, might clarify whether this aspect of Rho GTPase activation or inactivation represents a finely adapted response of the pathogen for its own benefit or might lead to a reaction of the host against the bacteria [19].
  • Genetics of the susceptibility to infectious diseases. First Louis Pasteur Conference on Infectious Diseases, Paris, 21-23 October, 1996 [20].
  • The polymerase chain reaction is sensitive and specific in the detection of defined DNA sequences and holds promise for diagnosing the presence of fastidious microorganisms in human infectious diseases [21].
  • We propose that TNF may contribute to T cell hyporesponsiveness in chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases by mechanisms that include down-regulation of TCRzeta expression [22].

Anatomical context of Communicable Diseases


Gene context of Communicable Diseases

  • Generation of macrophages refractory to IL-10 can contribute to pathogenesis of inflammatory and infectious diseases characterized by production of interferon-gamma and immune complexes [28].
  • The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), elevated in inflammatory, malignant, and infectious diseases, induce low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor transcription in HepG2 cells, and such an induction can account for hypocholesterolemia associated with these states [29].
  • These findings suggest the existence of a novel and specific innate immune mechanism regulating microbial-induced TLR triggering, and may lead to new therapeutics for the prevention and/or treatment of severe infectious diseases [30].
  • The expression and interaction of CD40 and CD40L were investigated in human infectious disease using leprosy as a model [31].
  • Our data suggest that innate immune recognition of LTA via LBP, CD14, and TLR-2 represents an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of systemic complications in the course of infectious diseases brought about by the clinically most important Gram-positive pathogens [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Communicable Diseases


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  3. Increased porphobilinogen deaminase activity in patients with malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. A helpful diagnostic test. Lahav, M., Epstein, O., Schoenfeld, N., Shaklai, M., Atsmon, A. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
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  6. Osteomyelitis in long bones. Lazzarini, L., Mader, J.T., Calhoun, J.H. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  9. Immune activation in measles. Griffin, D.E., Ward, B.J., Jauregui, E., Johnson, R.T., Vaisberg, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. T-cell release of granulysin contributes to host defense in leprosy. Ochoa, M.T., Stenger, S., Sieling, P.A., Thoma-Uszynski, S., Sabet, S., Cho, S., Krensky, A.M., Rollinghoff, M., Nunes Sarno, E., Burdick, A.E., Rea, T.H., Modlin, R.L. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Chromosome instability and immunodeficiency syndrome caused by mutations in a DNA methyltransferase gene. Xu, G.L., Bestor, T.H., Bourc'his, D., Hsieh, C.L., Tommerup, N., Bugge, M., Hulten, M., Qu, X., Russo, J.J., Viegas-Péquignot, E. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Salmonella typhi uses CFTR to enter intestinal epithelial cells. Pier, G.B., Grout, M., Zaidi, T., Meluleni, G., Mueschenborn, S.S., Banting, G., Ratcliff, R., Evans, M.J., Colledge, W.H. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a synthetic peptide malaria vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Herrington, D.A., Clyde, D.F., Losonsky, G., Cortesia, M., Murphy, J.R., Davis, J., Baqar, S., Felix, A.M., Heimer, E.P., Gillessen, D. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Infectious diseases. Sand fly saliva may be key to new vaccine. Enserink, M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular regulation of beta-lactam biosynthesis in filamentous fungi. Brakhage, A.A. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Serogroup C meningococcal outbreaks in the United States. An emerging threat. Jackson, L.A., Schuchat, A., Reeves, M.W., Wenger, J.D. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Abnormal T-cell subset proportions in vitamin-A-deficient children. Semba, R.D., Muhilal, n.u.l.l., Ward, B.J., Griffin, D.E., Scott, A.L., Natadisastra, G., West, K.P., Sommer, A. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. The search for unrecognized pathogens. Relman, D.A. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Bacterial virulence factors targeting Rho GTPases: parasitism or symbiosis? Boquet, P., Lemichez, E. Trends Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Genetics of the susceptibility to infectious diseases. First Louis Pasteur Conference on Infectious Diseases, Paris, 21-23 October, 1996. Wilkins, A.S. Bioessays (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. The polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Pachner, A.R., Delaney, E. Ann. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Prolonged exposure of T cells to TNF down-regulates TCR zeta and expression of the TCR/CD3 complex at the cell surface. Isomäki, P., Panesar, M., Annenkov, A., Clark, J.M., Foxwell, B.M., Chernajovsky, Y., Cope, A.P. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. The iron transport protein NRAMP2 is an integral membrane glycoprotein that colocalizes with transferrin in recycling endosomes. Gruenheid, S., Canonne-Hergaux, F., Gauthier, S., Hackam, D.J., Grinstein, S., Gros, P. J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Langerhans cells utilize CD1a and langerin to efficiently present nonpeptide antigens to T cells. Hunger, R.E., Sieling, P.A., Ochoa, M.T., Sugaya, M., Burdick, A.E., Rea, T.H., Brennan, P.J., Belisle, J.T., Blauvelt, A., Porcelli, S.A., Modlin, R.L. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. The NKp46 receptor contributes to NK cell lysis of mononuclear phagocytes infected with an intracellular bacterium. Vankayalapati, R., Wizel, B., Weis, S.E., Safi, H., Lakey, D.L., Mandelboim, O., Samten, B., Porgador, A., Barnes, P.F. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Single-dose compared with 3-day norfloxacin treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women. Canadian Infectious Diseases Society Clinical Trials Study Group. Saginur, R., Nicolle, L.E. Arch. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Current status of granulocyte (neutrophil) transfusion therapy for infectious diseases. Hübel, K., Dale, D.C., Engert, A., Liles, W.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of interleukin 10 signaling after Fc receptor ligation and during rheumatoid arthritis. Ji, J.D., Tassiulas, I., Park-Min, K.H., Aydin, A., Mecklenbrauker, I., Tarakhovsky, A., Pricop, L., Salmon, J.E., Ivashkiv, L.B. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Differential roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 and p38(MAPK) in interleukin-1beta- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced low density lipoprotein receptor expression in HepG2 cells. Kumar, A., Middleton, A., Chambers, T.C., Mehta, K.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Soluble forms of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 capable of modulating TLR2 signaling are present in human plasma and breast milk. LeBouder, E., Rey-Nores, J.E., Rushmere, N.K., Grigorov, M., Lawn, S.D., Affolter, M., Griffin, G.E., Ferrara, P., Schiffrin, E.J., Morgan, B.P., Labéta, M.O. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. A role for CD40-CD40 ligand interactions in the generation of type 1 cytokine responses in human leprosy. Yamauchi, P.S., Bleharski, J.R., Uyemura, K., Kim, J., Sieling, P.A., Miller, A., Brightbill, H., Schlienger, K., Rea, T.H., Modlin, R.L. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved. Schröder, N.W., Morath, S., Alexander, C., Hamann, L., Hartung, T., Zähringer, U., Göbel, U.B., Weber, J.R., Schumann, R.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Divergent effect of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination on Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in highly related macaque species: implications for primate models in tuberculosis vaccine research. Langermans, J.A., Andersen, P., van Soolingen, D., Vervenne, R.A., Frost, P.A., van der Laan, T., van Pinxteren, L.A., van den Hombergh, J., Kroon, S., Peekel, I., Florquin, S., Thomas, A.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. CpG DNA: a potent signal for growth, activation, and maturation of human dendritic cells. Hartmann, G., Weiner, G.J., Krieg, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
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  37. The use of recombinant human interleukin-2 in treating infectious diseases. Giedlin, M.A., Zimmerman, R.J. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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