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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

msrA  -  methionine sulfoxide reductase A

Staphylococcus aureus RF122

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Disease relevance of msrA


High impact information on msrA

  • Additional resistance elements in the VRSA isolate included a multiresistance gene cluster, ermB-aadE-sat4-aphA-3, msrA (macrolide efflux), and the bifunctional aminoglycoside resistance gene aac(6')-aph(2")-Ia [4].
  • None of the 42 S. aureus isolates or 18 CNS isolates containing only msrA and none of the erythromycin-susceptible isolates yielded positive disk approximation tests [5].
  • The requirement for two S. aureus candidate sequences, stpC and smpC, highly similar to sequences adjacent to msrA on the original S. epidermidis plasmid was investigated [1].
  • S. aureus strains carrying a delta(stpC-smpC) mutation showed an identical ErR phenotype to those arising from single crossover events and unmutated RN4220 containing msrA [1].
  • A gene similar to msrA was not present in the S. aureus chromosome [2].

Biological context of msrA


Associations of msrA with chemical compounds

  • Transcription of msrA was increased by oxacillin; but not by a variety of other stresses including H2O2 [6].
  • In the present study, the S. aureus msrA gene was cloned, overexpressed, purified as His-tagged MsrA and shown to have methionine sulfoxide reductase activity [6].

Other interactions of msrA

  • Increased transcription of the msrA and groEL genes in response to cell wall-active antibiotics was also demonstrated [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of msrA

  • Northern blot analysis revealed that the size of the msrA transcript was 2.3 kb, considerably larger than the 531 nt msrA ORF [6].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an oligonucleotide microarray containing seven oligonucleotide probes (oligoprobes) for each of the six genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, ereA, ereB and msrA/B) that account for more than 98% of MLS resistance in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates [8].


  1. Minimal functional system required for expression of erythromycin resistance by msrA in Staphylococcus aureus RN4220. Ross, J.I., Eady, E.A., Cove, J.H., Baumberg, S. Gene (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of a chromosomally encoded ABC-transport system with which the staphylococcal erythromycin exporter MsrA may interact. Ross, J.I., Eady, E.A., Cove, J.H., Baumberg, S. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Prevalence of macrolide-resistance genes in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium isolates from 24 European university hospitals. Schmitz, F.J., Sadurski, R., Kray, A., Boos, M., Geisel, R., Köhrer, K., Verhoef, J., Fluit, A.C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. High-Level Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Associated with a Polymicrobial Biofilm. Weigel, L.M., Donlan, R.M., Shin, D.H., Jensen, B., Clark, N.C., McDougal, L.K., Zhu, W., Musser, K.A., Thompson, J., Kohlerschmidt, D., Dumas, N., Limberger, R.J., Patel, J.B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Practical disk diffusion method for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Fiebelkorn, K.R., Crawford, S.A., McElmeel, M.L., Jorgensen, J.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular characterization of a chromosomal locus in Staphylococcus aureus that contributes to oxidative defence and is highly induced by the cell-wall-active antibiotic oxacillin. Singh, V.K., Moskovitz, J., Wilkinson, B.J., Jayaswal, R.K. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell wall-active antibiotic induced proteins of Staphylococcus aureus identified using a proteomic approach. Singh, V.K., Jayaswal, R.K., Wilkinson, B.J. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Microarray analysis of erythromycin resistance determinants. Volokhov, D., Chizhikov, V., Chumakov, K., Rasooly, A. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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