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Gene Review

bol  -  boule

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: BOL, BcDNA:AT13332, Bol, Boule, CG4727, ...
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Disease relevance of bol

  • The Drosophila boule gene is expressed exclusively in the male germline and encodes an RNA binding protein closely related to the mammalian fertility factors encoded by the DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia) and DAZL (DAZ-like) genes [1].

High impact information on bol

  • Loss of boule function results in azoospermia; meiotic divisions are blocked, although limited spermatid differentiation occurs [2].
  • Histological examination of boule testes with cell-cycle markers indicates that the primary defect is at the meiotic G2/M transition [2].
  • Post-transcriptional regulation of the meiotic Cdc25 protein Twine by the Dazl orthologue Boule [3].
  • Thus, regulatory interactions among Modulo, Boule, and the meiotic-arrest genes integrate meiosis and spermatid differentiation in the male germ line [4].
  • These studies lend strong support to the idea that BOULE may encode a key conserved switch that regulates progression of germ cells through meiosis in men [5].

Biological context of bol

  • Boule functions in spermatogenesis by controlling the translation of the meiotic cell division cycle 25 (Cdc25) phosphatase, Twine [6].
  • We found that an isoform of Boule is expressed in the nervous system and when its expression is increased we observe mutant phenotypes in neural communication between the receptor and laminar cells of the fly eye, altered larval locomotion and when further overexpressed, viability [6].
  • Overall, these results suggest that Xdazl may be important for primordial germ cell specification in the early embryo and may play a role analogous to Boule in promoting meiotic cell division [7].
  • We show that deletion of the Y chromosome ks-1 fertility locus eliminates Boule nuclear localization, although it does not perturb entry into meiosis [1].

Anatomical context of bol


  1. Biphasic subcellular localization of the DAZL-related protein boule in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Cheng, M.H., Maines, J.Z., Wasserman, S.A. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Meiotic cell cycle requirement for a fly homologue of human Deleted in Azoospermia. Eberhart, C.G., Maines, J.Z., Wasserman, S.A. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Post-transcriptional regulation of the meiotic Cdc25 protein Twine by the Dazl orthologue Boule. Maines, J.Z., Wasserman, S.A. Nat. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Transcriptional regulation by Modulo integrates meiosis and spermatid differentiation in male germ line. Mikhaylova, L.M., Boutanaev, A.M., Nurminsky, D.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Human BOULE gene rescues meiotic defects in infertile flies. Xu, E.Y., Lee, D.F., Klebes, A., Turek, P.J., Kornberg, T.B., Reijo Pera, R.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Nervous system function for the testis RNA-binding protein boule in Drosophila. Joiner, M.L., Wu, C.F. J. Neurogenet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. A Xenopus DAZ-like gene encodes an RNA component of germ plasm and is a functional homologue of Drosophila boule. Houston, D.W., Zhang, J., Maines, J.Z., Wasserman, S.A., King, M.L. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
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