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Gene Review

rols  -  rolling pebbles

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: ANTS, Ants, CG12277, CG17155, CG32096, ...
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High impact information on rols

  • Duf and rolling pebbles 7 (Rols7; also known as antisocial) are expressed in founders, whereas sticks and stones (SNS) is present in fcm [1].
  • A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila [1].
  • Mutations in the rolling pebbles (rols) gene result in severe defects in myoblast fusion [2].
  • Transplantation assays of rols mutant mesodermal cells into wild-type embryos show that Rols is required in muscle precursor cells and is essential to recruit fusion-competent myoblasts for myotube formation [2].
  • Molecular analysis of the rols genomic region reveals two variant transcripts of rols due to different transcription initiation sites, rols6 and rols7. rols6 mRNA is detectable mainly in the endoderm during differentiation as well as in malpighian tubules and in the epidermis [2].

Biological context of rols


Anatomical context of rols

  • We propose that Rols7 and Duf/Kirre link the terminal Z-disc to the cell membrane by direct interaction [3].
  • In summary, these data show that besides the role in myoblast fusion, Rols7 is a scaffold protein during myofibrillogenesis and in the Z-line of the sarcomere as well as in the terminal Z-disc linking the muscle to the epidermal attachment sites [3].

Associations of rols with chemical compounds

  • RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expressions of fusion-competent myoblast-specific genes lmd, sns, and del were induced in Schneider cells upon treatment with NCS or HU, whereas expressions of three founder cell-specific genes, duf, ants, and rols, were undetectable [4].

Other interactions of rols

  • Because of the predicted structural similarities of the Rols7 and Rols6 proteins, we argue that genetic interaction of rols6, mbc and rac might lead to proper MpT morphology [5].
  • Here, we show that Duf/Kirre and its interaction partners Rols7 (found in founder myoblasts and growing myotubes) and Sns (found in fcms) are organized in a ring-structure at the contact points of fcms with precursor cells, while cytoskeletal components like F-actin and Titin are centered in this ring in both cell types [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of rols

  • This is supported by the fact that in yeast two hybrid assays the tetratricopeptide repeat E (TPR E) of Rols7 shows interaction with the intracellular domain of Duf/Kirre [3].


  1. A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila. Menon, S.D., Osman, Z., Chenchill, K., Chia, W. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. rolling pebbles (rols) is required in Drosophila muscle precursors for recruitment of myoblasts for fusion. Rau, A., Buttgereit, D., Holz, A., Fetter, R., Doberstein, S.K., Paululat, A., Staudt, N., Skeath, J., Michelson, A.M., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Drosophila Rolling pebbles colocalises and putatively interacts with alpha-Actinin and the Sls isoform Zormin in the Z-discs of the sarcomere and with Dumbfounded/Kirre, alpha-Actinin and Zormin in the terminal Z-discs. Kreisköther, N., Reichert, N., Buttgereit, D., Hertenstein, A., Fischbach, K.F., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of fusion-competent myoblast-specific gene expression during myogenic differentiation of Drosophila Schneider cells by DNA double-strand breaks or replication inhibition. Hossain, M.S., Kurokawa, K., Sekimizu, K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Rolling pebbles isoform 6 (Rols6) is essential for proper Malpighian tubule morphology. Pütz, M., Kesper, D.A., Buttgereit, D., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Mech. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila melanogaster is mediated through a fusion-restricted myogenic-adhesive structure (FuRMAS). Kesper, D.A., Stute, C., Buttgereit, D., Kreisköther, N., Vishnu, S., Fischbach, K.F., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Dev. Dyn. (2007) [Pubmed]
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