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Gene Review

bt  -  bent

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 39c-18, Bt, CG10285, CG1479, CG32019, ...
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Disease relevance of bt


High impact information on bt

  • In contrast, the staining pattern of projectin, another IFM-I-band protein, was not altered by actin removal [3].
  • Kettin along with projectin may constitute the elastic filament system of insect IFM and determine the muscle's high stiffness necessary for stretch activation [3].
  • The multiple projectin isoforms are encoded by a single gene; however they differ significantly in size (as detected by gel mobility) and show differences in some peptide fragments, presumably indicating alternative splicing or termination [4].
  • The projectin gene is in polytene region 102C/D where the bentD phenotype maps [4].
  • We find that different alleles of the highly mutable recessive lethal complementation group, l(4)2, also have defects in different parts of the projectin sequence, both NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal to the bentD breakpoint [4].

Biological context of bt


Anatomical context of bt

  • Here, we show that Duf/Kirre and its interaction partners Rols7 (found in founder myoblasts and growing myotubes) and Sns (found in fcms) are organized in a ring-structure at the contact points of fcms with precursor cells, while cytoskeletal components like F-actin and Titin are centered in this ring in both cell types [8].
  • This supports the idea that interactions of projectin with other Z-band associated proteins are sufficient for its initial assembly into the forming myofibrils [6].
  • In this study we found that projectin is oriented within the IFM sarcomere with its NH(2)-terminus embedded in the Z-bands [9].
  • The characterization of twitchin in the obliquely striated muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans is reported and the deductions made from its amino acid sequence are considered [10].

Associations of bt with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of bt


Other interactions of bt

  • Drosophila projectin is an extremely large protein found within the muscle sarcomeric unit, parallel with the actin and myosin filaments [5].
  • In contrast, treatment of adult myofibrils with calpain, which removes the Z-bands, does not lead to the release of projectin [6].
  • Initial in vitro binding assays indicate interactions of several projectin regions with themselves and myosin heavy chain [13].
  • On Lowicryl sections of asynchronous flight muscle, indirect immunogold staining has localized alpha-actinin and the 210-kD protein throughout the matrix of the Z-band, projectin between the Z- and A-bands, and the 400/600-kD components at the I-band/Z-band junction [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of bt


  1. Drosophila projectin: relatedness to titin and twitchin and correlation with lethal(4) 102 CDa and bent-dominant mutants. Fyrberg, C.C., Labeit, S., Bullard, B., Leonard, K., Fyrberg, E. Proc. Biol. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of the domains for DNA binding and transactivation function of C protein from bacteriophage Mu. Paul, B.D., Kanhere, A., Chakraborty, A., Bansal, M., Nagaraja, V. Proteins (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Kettin, a major source of myofibrillar stiffness in Drosophila indirect flight muscle. Kulke, M., Neagoe, C., Kolmerer, B., Minajeva, A., Hinssen, H., Bullard, B., Linke, W.A. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Both synchronous and asynchronous muscle isoforms of projectin (the Drosophila bent locus product) contain functional kinase domains. Ayme-Southgate, A., Southgate, R., Saide, J., Benian, G.M., Pardue, M.L. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Alternative splicing of an amino-terminal PEVK-like region generates multiple isoforms of Drosophila projectin. Southgate, R., Ayme-Southgate, A. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Assembly of the giant protein projectin during myofibrillogenesis in Drosophila indirect flight muscles. Ayme-Southgate, A., Bounaix, C., Riebe, T.E., Southgate, R. BMC Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Drosophila has a twitchin/titin-related gene that appears to encode projectin. Ayme-Southgate, A., Vigoreaux, J., Benian, G., Pardue, M.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila melanogaster is mediated through a fusion-restricted myogenic-adhesive structure (FuRMAS). Kesper, D.A., Stute, C., Buttgereit, D., Kreisköther, N., Vishnu, S., Fischbach, K.F., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Dev. Dyn. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. In indirect flight muscles Drosophila projectin has a short PEVK domain, and its NH(2)-terminus is embedded at the Z-band. Ayme-Southgate, A., Saide, J., Southgate, R., Bounaix, C., Cammarato, A., Patel, S., Wussler, C. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Titin-related proteins in invertebrate muscles. Ziegler, C. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Autophosphorylating protein kinase activity in titin-like arthropod projectin. Maroto, M., Vinós, J., Marco, R., Cervera, M. J. Mol. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. The entire cDNA sequences of projectin isoforms of crayfish claw closer and flexor muscles and their localization. Oshino, T., Shimamura, J., Fukuzawa, A., Maruyama, K., Kimura, S. J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Drosophila projectin: a look at protein structure and sarcomeric assembly. Ayme-Southgate, A., Southgate, R., McEliece, M.K. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of components of Z-bands in the fibrillar flight muscle of Drosophila melanogaster. Saide, J.D., Chin-Bow, S., Hogan-Sheldon, J., Busquets-Turner, L., Vigoreaux, J.O., Valgeirsdottir, K., Pardue, M.L. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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