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Gene Review

TLR9  -  toll-like receptor 9

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of TLR9


High impact information on TLR9

  • The swine TLR9 gene was preferentially expressed in adult Peyer's patches (Pps) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), which contained approximately three times higher TLR9 than the spleen [2].
  • In particular, in immature intestinal tissues and GALT, TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA were expressed at higher levels in ileal Pps and MLN than in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum [3].

Anatomical context of TLR9


Other interactions of TLR9

  • These results indicate that TLR2 and TLR9 allow MLN and ileal Pps to respond to a variety of bacterial components immediately after birth, thereby providing newborns with a host defense system [3].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TLR9

  • In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of TLR9 in adult and neonatal swine GALTs by real-time quantitative PCR, western blot, confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometric analysis [2].
  • TLR 9 ligation stimulated very high IL-12 in CD11c(+) DC, but high IL-10 and no IL-12 in B220(+) DC [4].


  1. Silencing of natural interferon producing cell activation by porcine circovirus type 2 DNA. Vincent, I.E., Balmelli, C., Meehan, B., Allan, G., Summerfield, A., McCullough, K.C. Immunology (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. Toll-like receptor 9 is expressed on follicle-associated epithelia containing M cells in swine Peyer's patches. Shimosato, T., Tohno, M., Kitazawa, H., Katoh, S., Watanabe, K., Kawai, Y., Aso, H., Yamaguchi, T., Saito, T. Immunol. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Toll-like receptor 2 and 9 are expressed and functional in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of presuckling newborn swine. Tohno, M., Shimosato, T., Moue, M., Aso, H., Watanabe, K., Kawai, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Saito, T., Kitazawa, H. Vet. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. In vivo expansion of two distinct dendritic cells in mouse livers and its impact on liver immune regulation. Wang, Y., Zheng, N., Lu, Z., Wu, W., Wang, L., Nakao, A., Lotze, M.T., Langer, C.E., Fung, J.J., Qian, S., Lu, L. Liver Transpl. (2006) [Pubmed]
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