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Gene Review

TLR2  -  toll-like receptor 2

Sus scrofa

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High impact information on TLR2


Biological context of TLR2

  • These results indicated that both TLR2 and TLR6 are important in the recognition of M. hyopneumoniae in porcine alveolar macrophages and will be useful in understanding innate immunity against M. hyopneumoniae [2].
  • The similarities of canine TLR2 with human, mouse, rat, cattle, horse and pig TLR2 were 87.6, 72.9, 73.2, 83.1, 85.1 and 80.7% at the nucleotide sequence level, and 84.6, 68.7, 68.5, 78.8, 82.9 and 79.0% at amino acid sequence level, respectively [3].

Anatomical context of TLR2

  • Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA were expressed at detectable levels in all tested tissues (heart, thymus, lung, spleen, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileal Peyer patches (Pps), and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)) [4].
  • In particular, in immature intestinal tissues and GALT, TLR2 and TLR9 mRNA were expressed at higher levels in ileal Pps and MLN than in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum [4].
  • Interestingly, while the apical membrane of the columnar M cells strongly expressed TLR2 protein and preferentially recognized zymosan, both "TLR2 expression on the apical membrane" and "TLR2-mediated zymosan binding" were negligible in neighboring enterocytes [4].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed colocalization of IRF1, TLR2, and SOD1 protein in macrophages and confirmed the RNA expression data [5].
  • By a semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, mRNA of canine TLR2 was detected in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs), lymph node, lung, liver, spleen, bladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine and skin of the dogs [3].

Associations of TLR2 with chemical compounds

  • We demonstrated that the swine TLR2-expressing transfectant can bind not only zymosan from yeast cell wall components but also intact lactic acid bacteria, resulting in the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB [6].

Other interactions of TLR2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TLR2


  1. Toll-like receptor 2 is expressed on the intestinal M cells in swine. Tohno, M., Shimosato, T., Kitazawa, H., Katoh, S., Iliev, I.D., Kimura, T., Kawai, Y., Watanabe, K., Aso, H., Yamaguchi, T., Saito, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Porcine TLR2 and TLR6: identification and their involvement in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection. Muneta, Y., Uenishi, H., Kikuma, R., Yoshihara, K., Shimoji, Y., Yamamoto, R., Hamashima, N., Yokomizo, Y., Mori, Y. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Molecular cloning and tissue expression of canine Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Ishii, M., Hashimoto, M., Oguma, K., Kano, R., Moritomo, T., Hasegawa, A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Toll-like receptor 2 and 9 are expressed and functional in gut-associated lymphoid tissues of presuckling newborn swine. Tohno, M., Shimosato, T., Moue, M., Aso, H., Watanabe, K., Kawai, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Saito, T., Kitazawa, H. Vet. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlates positively with toll-like receptor 2 and interferon regulatory factor-1 and inversely with superoxide dismutase-1 expression: studies in hypercholesterolemic swine and THP-1 cells. Holvoet, P., Davey, P.C., De Keyzer, D., Doukouré, M., Deridder, E., Bochaton-Piallat, M.L., Gabbiani, G., Beaufort, E., Bishay, K., Andrieux, N., Benhabilès, N., Marguerie, G. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A swine toll-like receptor 2-expressing transfectant as a potential primary screening system for immunobiotic microorganisms. Tohno, M., Kitazawa, H., Shimosato, T., Matsumoto, M., Katoh, S., Kawai, Y., Saito, T. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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