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Gene Review

Acf1  -  ATP-dependent chromatin assembly factor...

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 175K protein, ACF, ACF/CHRAC, ACF1, Acf, ...
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High impact information on Acf1


Biological context of Acf1

  • ACF consists of two subunits, Acf1 and ISWI, that function cooperatively in the ATP-dependent catalysis of chromatin assembly [4].
  • Moreover, cells in animals lacking Acf1 exhibit an acceleration of progression through S phase, which is consistent with a decrease in chromatin-mediated repression of DNA replication [3].
  • The phenotypes of flies lacking Acf1 suggest that ACF/CHRAC promotes the formation of repressive chromatin [3].
  • This reaction utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis by ISWI, the smaller of the two subunits of ACF [5].
  • Because ACF assembles nucleosomes uniformly on heterogeneous DNA sequences, as in native chromatin, we attribute this variation to a dependence of the unraveling force on the DNA sequence within individual nucleosomes [6].

Associations of Acf1 with chemical compounds

  • The interaction of Acf1 with ISWI requires a DDT domain, which has been found in a variety of transcription and chromatin-remodeling factors [5].
  • Furthermore, an ACF-dependent local detachment of DNA from the nucleosome was demonstrated in a novel assay based on the preferred intercalation of ethidium bromide to free DNA [7].
  • We show that CBP and P/CAF acetylate HMG I(Y), the essential architectural component required for enhanceosome assembly, at distinct lysine residues, causing distinct effects on transcription [8].

Other interactions of Acf1

  • The acf1 gene is involved in the establishment and/or maintenance of transcriptional silencing in pericentric heterochromatin and in the chromatin-dependent repression by Polycomb group genes [3].


  1. Nucleosome movement by CHRAC and ISWI without disruption or trans-displacement of the histone octamer. Längst, G., Bonte, E.J., Corona, D.F., Becker, P.B. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. ACF, an ISWI-containing and ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor. Ito, T., Bulger, M., Pazin, M.J., Kobayashi, R., Kadonaga, J.T. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Acf1 confers unique activities to ACF/CHRAC and promotes the formation rather than disruption of chromatin in vivo. Fyodorov, D.V., Blower, M.D., Karpen, G.H., Kadonaga, J.T. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. ACF consists of two subunits, Acf1 and ISWI, that function cooperatively in the ATP-dependent catalysis of chromatin assembly. Ito, T., Levenstein, M.E., Fyodorov, D.V., Kutach, A.K., Kobayashi, R., Kadonaga, J.T. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Binding of Acf1 to DNA involves a WAC motif and is important for ACF-mediated chromatin assembly. Fyodorov, D.V., Kadonaga, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Forced unraveling of nucleosomes assembled on heterogeneous DNA using core histones, NAP-1, and ACF. Gemmen, G.J., Sim, R., Haushalter, K.A., Ke, P.C., Kadonaga, J.T., Smith, D.E. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. A 'loop recapture' mechanism for ACF-dependent nucleosome remodeling. Strohner, R., Wachsmuth, M., Dachauer, K., Mazurkiewicz, J., Hochstatter, J., Rippe, K., Längst, G. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Acetylation of HMG I(Y) by CBP turns off IFN beta expression by disrupting the enhanceosome. Munshi, N., Merika, M., Yie, J., Senger, K., Chen, G., Thanos, D. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
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