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Gene Review

Su(var)205  -  Suppressor of variegation 205

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CBX5, CG8409, DmHP-1, DmHP1, Dmel\CG8409, ...
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Disease relevance of Su(var)205


High impact information on Su(var)205

  • Consistently, JAK loss of function enhances heterochromatic gene silencing, whereas overexpressing HP1 suppresses oncogenic JAK-induced tumors [6].
  • Insulator activity is decreased when Argonaute genes required for RNAi are mutated, and insulator function is improved when the levels of the Rm62 helicase, involved in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated silencing and heterochromatin formation, are reduced [7].
  • Cytological analysis of mitotic chromosomes showed that HP1 depletion caused sex-biased chromosomal defects, including telomere fusions [8].
  • Using a Gal4-induced RNA interference system, we showed that conditional depletion of HP1 in transgenic flies resulted in preferential lethality in male flies [8].
  • These findings indicate substantial changes in the state of telomeric heterochromatin in SUV39DN cells, which are associated with abnormal telomere elongation [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Su(var)205


Biological context of Su(var)205


Anatomical context of Su(var)205


Associations of Su(var)205 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Su(var)205


Co-localisations of Su(var)205


Regulatory relationships of Su(var)205


Other interactions of Su(var)205

  • A hyperactive Su(var)3-9 mutant, pitkin(D), displays extensive H3-K9 di- and trimethylation within but also outside pericentric heterochromatin [34].
  • Whereas the majority of Su(var)s encode inherent components of heterochromatin that can establish repressive chromatin structures [intrinsic Su(var)s], Su(var)3-1 reflects gain-of-function mutants of a euchromatic component that antagonize the expansion of heterochromatic subdomains [acquired Su(var)s] [34].
  • Mutations recovered in HP2 act as dominant suppressors of position effect variegation, confirming a role in heterochromatin spreading and gene silencing [35].
  • P repression by P strains whose repressive capacities are not linked to the presence of P copies at 1A were previously found to be insensitive to Su(var)205; here, we show that they are also insensitive to aubergine mutations [36].
  • We find heterochromatin protein 1/origin recognition complex-associated protein (HOAP) to interact specifically with the originally described predominantly heterochromatic HP1a protein [15].
  • These findings implicate a direct interaction between the PIWI-mediated small RNA mechanism and heterochromatin-forming pathways in determining the epigenetic state of the fly genome [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Su(var)205

  • A PCR generated probe encompassing the HP1 chromo box was used to clone full-length murine cDNAs that contain conserved chromo box motifs [38].
  • Sequence comparisons, in situ hybridization experiments, and RNA Northern blot analysis suggest that the murine and human sequences presented in this report are homologues of the Drosophila HP1 gene [38].
  • Site-directed mutagenesis within the two conserved regions has shown that the 16 amino acid domain is critical for HP1 binding [39].
  • Genetic dissection of heterochromatic gene silencing in position-effect variegation (PEV) by Su(var) and E(var) mutations allowed identification and functional analysis of key factors controlling the formation of heterochromatin [40].
  • Supercompact heterochromatin is absent from the telomeres of polytene chromosomes: electron microscopy analysis identifies the telomeric cap and the tract of retroelements as a reticular material, having no discernible banding pattern, whereas TAS repeats appear as faint bands [41].


  1. Heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells: interaction between histones and HP1 proteins. Nielsen, A.L., Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Ortiz, J.A., Remboutsika, E., Chambon, P., Losson, R. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Does heterochromatin protein 1 always follow code? Li, Y., Kirschmann, D.A., Wallrath, L.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of a nonhistone chromosomal protein associated with heterochromatin in Drosophila melanogaster and its gene. James, T.C., Elgin, S.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Human homolog of Drosophila heterochromatin-associated protein 1 (HP1) is a DNA-binding protein which possesses a DNA-binding motif with weak similarity to that of human centromere protein C (CENP-C). Sugimoto, K., Yamada, T., Muro, Y., Himeno, M. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Telomere regions in Drosophila share complex DNA sequences with pericentric heterochromatin. Young, B.S., Pession, A., Traverse, K.L., French, C., Pardue, M.L. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. JAK signaling globally counteracts heterochromatic gene silencing. Shi, S., Calhoun, H.C., Xia, F., Li, J., Le, L., Li, W.X. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. RNA interference machinery influences the nuclear organization of a chromatin insulator. Lei, E.P., Corces, V.G. Nat. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Sex-specific role of Drosophila melanogaster HP1 in regulating chromatin structure and gene transcription. Liu, L.P., Ni, J.Q., Shi, Y.D., Oakeley, E.J., Sun, F.L. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Epigenetic regulation of telomere length in mammalian cells by the Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 histone methyltransferases. García-Cao, M., O'Sullivan, R., Peters, A.H., Jenuwein, T., Blasco, M.A. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Restrictive flamenco Alleles Are Maintained in Drosophila melanogaster Population Cages, Despite the Absence of Their Endogenous gypsy Retroviral Targets. Pélisson, A., Payen-Groschêne, G., Terzian, C., Bucheton, A. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in Su(var)205 and Su(var)3-7 suppress P-element-dependent silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Bushey, D., Locke, J. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Self-association of chromo domain peptides. Cowell, I.G., Austin, C.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of histone H2Av variant replacement and histone H4 acetylation in the establishment of Drosophila heterochromatin. Swaminathan, J., Baxter, E.M., Corces, V.G. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Central role of Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 in histone H3-K9 methylation and heterochromatic gene silencing. Schotta, G., Ebert, A., Krauss, V., Fischer, A., Hoffmann, J., Rea, S., Jenuwein, T., Dorn, R., Reuter, G. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Novel Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)/origin recognition complex-associated protein (HOAP) repeat motif in HP1/HOAP interactions and chromocenter associations. Badugu, R., Shareef, M.M., Kellum, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Stage-specific expression of polycomb group genes in human bone marrow cells. Lessard, J., Baban, S., Sauvageau, G. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. HP1: facts, open questions, and speculation. Singh, P.B., Georgatos, S.D. J. Struct. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Polypyrimidine segments in Drosophila melanogaster DNA: II. Chromosome location and nucleotide sequence. Sederoff, R., Lowenstein, L. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Drosophila argonaute-2 is required early in embryogenesis for the assembly of centric/centromeric heterochromatin, nuclear division, nuclear migration, and germ-cell formation. Deshpande, G., Calhoun, G., Schedl, P. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase regulates dimethyl H3K9 modifications and heterochromatic spreading in Drosophila. Zhang, W., Deng, H., Bao, X., Lerach, S., Girton, J., Johansen, J., Johansen, K.M. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Coordinated methyl and RNA binding is required for heterochromatin localization of mammalian HP1alpha. Muchardt, C., Guilleme, M., Seeler, J.S., Trouche, D., Dejean, A., Yaniv, M. EMBO Rep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. A Distinct Type of Heterochromatin Within Drosophila melanogaster Chromosome 4. Haynes, K.A., Gracheva, E., Elgin, S.C. Genetics (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Double chromodomains cooperate to recognize the methylated histone H3 tail. Flanagan, J.F., Mi, L.Z., Chruszcz, M., Cymborowski, M., Clines, K.L., Kim, Y., Minor, W., Rastinejad, F., Khorasanizadeh, S. Nature (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites. Czermin, B., Melfi, R., McCabe, D., Seitz, V., Imhof, A., Pirrotta, V. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. The GAGA protein of Drosophila is phosphorylated by CK2. Bonet, C., Fernández, I., Aran, X., Bernués, J., Giralt, E., Azorín, F. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. DDP1, a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding protein of Drosophila, associates with pericentric heterochromatin and is functionally homologous to the yeast Scp160p, which is involved in the control of cell ploidy. Cortés, A., Huertas, D., Fanti, L., Pimpinelli, S., Marsellach, F.X., Piña, B., Azorín, F. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. SuUR protein binds to the boundary regions separating forum domains in Drosophila melanogaster. Tchurikov, N.A., Kretova, O.V., Chernov, B.K., Golova, Y.B., Zhimulev, I.F., Zykov, I.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. An actin-related protein in Drosophila colocalizes with heterochromatin protein 1 in pericentric heterochromatin. Frankel, S., Sigel, E.A., Craig, C., Elgin, S.C., Mooseker, M.S., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Polycomb group suppressor of zeste 12 links heterochromatin protein 1alpha and enhancer of zeste 2. Yamamoto, K., Sonoda, M., Inokuchi, J., Shirasawa, S., Sasazuki, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Functional analysis of the chromo domain of HP1. Platero, J.S., Hartnett, T., Eissenberg, J.C. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of the Suppressor of Underreplication (SuUR) gene on position-effect variegation silencing in Drosophila melanogaster. Belyaeva, E.S., Boldyreva, L.V., Volkova, E.I., Nanayev, R.A., Alekseyenko, A.A., Zhimulev, I.F. Genetics (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Role of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in epigenetic control of heterochromatin assembly. Nakayama , J., Rice, J.C., Strahl, B.D., Allis, C.D., Grewal, S.I. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Conserved domains control heterochromatin localization and silencing properties of SU(VAR)3-7. Jaquet, Y., Delattre, M., Montoya-Burgos, J., Spierer, A., Spierer, P. Chromosoma (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Su(var) genes regulate the balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin in Drosophila. Ebert, A., Schotta, G., Lein, S., Kubicek, S., Krauss, V., Jenuwein, T., Reuter, G. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Heterochromatin protein 2 (HP2), a partner of HP1 in Drosophila heterochromatin. Shaffer, C.D., Stephens, G.E., Thompson, B.A., Funches, L., Bernat, J.A., Craig, C.A., Elgin, S.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. aubergine mutations in Drosophila melanogaster impair P cytotype determination by telomeric P elements inserted in heterochromatin. Reiss, D., Josse, T., Anxolabéhère, D., Ronsseray, S. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Drosophila PIWI associates with chromatin and interacts directly with HP1a. Brower-Toland, B., Findley, S.D., Jiang, L., Liu, L., Yin, H., Dus, M., Zhou, P., Elgin, S.C., Lin, H. Genes Dev. (2007) [Pubmed]
  38. A sequence motif found in a Drosophila heterochromatin protein is conserved in animals and plants. Singh, P.B., Miller, J.R., Pearce, J., Kothary, R., Burton, R.D., Paro, R., James, T.C., Gaunt, S.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Interaction of heterochromatin protein 2 with HP1 defines a novel HP1-binding domain. Stephens, G.E., Slawson, E.E., Craig, C.A., Elgin, S.C. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Histone modification and the control of heterochromatic gene silencing in Drosophila. Ebert, A., Lein, S., Schotta, G., Reuter, G. Chromosome Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  41. Three distinct chromatin domains in telomere ends of polytene chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster Tel mutants. Andreyeva, E.N., Belyaeva, E.S., Semeshin, V.F., Pokholkova, G.V., Zhimulev, I.F. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
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