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Gene Review

Nap1  -  Nucleosome assembly protein 1

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG5330, Dmel\CG5330, NAP-1, NAP1, Nap-1, ...
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High impact information on Nap1


Biological context of Nap1

  • We conclude that this example of gene targeting at the Nap1 locus provides added support for the efficiency of this method and its usefulness in targeting any arbitrary locus in the Drosophila genome [6].
  • Thus, NAP-1 appears to be one component of a multifactor chromatin assembly machinery that mediates the ATP-facilitated assembly of regularly spaced nucleosomal arrays [7].
  • Studies of the localization of dNAP-1 in the Drosophila embryo revealed that the factor is present in the nucleus during S phase and is predominantly cytoplasmic during G2 phase [7].
  • With ACF + dNAP1-assembled chromatin, we found that transcriptional activation is dependent upon acetyl-CoA [8].
  • The recombinant histones were efficiently assembled into periodic nucleosome arrays in a completely purified recombinant system with Drosophila ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor (ACF), Drosophila nucleosome assembly protein-1, plasmid DNA, and ATP [9].

Anatomical context of Nap1


Associations of Nap1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Nap1

  • These and other data collectively suggest that dNLP may participate in parallel with other histone-binding proteins such as dNAP-1 in the assembly of chromatin [12].
  • HMG-D interacts with DNA during the early phases of nucleosome assembly but is gradually displaced as chromatin matures [13].

Enzymatic interactions of Nap1

  • CHD1 catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of histones from the NAP1 chaperone to the DNA by a processive mechanism that yields regularly spaced nucleosomes [14].

Other interactions of Nap1

  • We observed that dNAP-1, but not dNLP, was able to promote the decondensation of sperm chromatin [12].
  • Purified, recombinant dNAP-1 acts cooperatively with a factor(s) in the dCAF-1 fraction in the efficient and DNA replication-independent assembly of chromatin [7].
  • H2AvD is therefore both essential and continuously present, suggesting a requirement for its utilization, either to provide an alternative capability for nucleosome assembly or to generate an alternative nucleosome structure [15].
  • Chromatin assembly in vitro with purified recombinant ACF and NAP-1 [16].
  • This reaction involves purified CHD1, NAP1 chaperone, core histones and relaxed DNA [14].


  1. Acf1 confers unique activities to ACF/CHRAC and promotes the formation rather than disruption of chromatin in vivo. Fyodorov, D.V., Blower, M.D., Karpen, G.H., Kadonaga, J.T. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Centromeres are specialized replication domains in heterochromatin. Ahmad, K., Henikoff, S. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Histone H3.3 is enriched in covalent modifications associated with active chromatin. McKittrick, E., Gafken, P.R., Ahmad, K., Henikoff, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Heat shock-regulated transcription in vitro from a reconstituted chromatin template. Becker, P.B., Rabindran, S.K., Wu, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Dual roles of p300 in chromatin assembly and transcriptional activation in cooperation with nucleosome assembly protein 1 in vitro. Asahara, H., Tartare-Deckert, S., Nakagawa, T., Ikehara, T., Hirose, F., Hunter, T., Ito, T., Montminy, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Knockout targeting of the Drosophila nap1 gene and examination of DNA repair tracts in the recombination products. Lankenau, S., Barnickel, T., Marhold, J., Lyko, F., Mechler, B.M., Lankenau, D.H. Genetics (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Drosophila NAP-1 is a core histone chaperone that functions in ATP-facilitated assembly of regularly spaced nucleosomal arrays. Ito, T., Bulger, M., Kobayashi, R., Kadonaga, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Transcriptional analysis of chromatin assembled with purified ACF and dNAP1 reveals that acetyl-CoA is required for preinitiation complex assembly. Jiang, W., Nordeen, S.K., Kadonaga, J.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Biochemical analysis of chromatin containing recombinant Drosophila core histones. Levenstein, M.E., Kadonaga, J.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Casein kinase 2 binds and phosphorylates the nucleosome assembly protein-1 (NAP1) in Drosophila melanogaster. Li, M., Strand, D., Krehan, A., Pyerin, W., Heid, H., Neumann, B., Mechler, B.M. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. H1 histone, polylysine and spermine facilitate nucleosome assembly in vitro. Bogdanova, E.S. FEBS Lett. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. ATP-facilitated chromatin assembly with a nucleoplasmin-like protein from Drosophila melanogaster. Ito, T., Tyler, J.K., Bulger, M., Kobayashi, R., Kadonaga, J.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. HMG-D and histone H1 interplay during chromatin assembly and early embryogenesis. Ner, S.S., Blank, T., Pérez-Paralle, M.L., Grigliatti, T.A., Becker, P.B., Travers, A.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Distinct activities of CHD1 and ACF in ATP-dependent chromatin assembly. Lusser, A., Urwin, D.L., Kadonaga, J.T. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. A histone variant, H2AvD, is essential in Drosophila melanogaster. van Daal, A., Elgin, S.C. Mol. Biol. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Chromatin assembly in vitro with purified recombinant ACF and NAP-1. Fyodorov, D.V., Kadonaga, J.T. Meth. Enzymol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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