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Gene Review

Caf1  -  Chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 154659_at, 55, CAF-1, CAF-1 p55 subunit, CAF1, ...
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Disease relevance of Caf1


High impact information on Caf1

  • In chromatin assembly, purified ACF and a core histone chaperone (such as NAP-1 or CAF-1) are sufficient for the ATP-dependent formation of periodic nucleosome arrays [2].
  • Similarly, miRNAs silence gene expression by repressing protein expression and/or by promoting mRNA decay, and both mechanisms require GW182. mRNA degradation, but not translational repression, by GW182 or miRNAs is inhibited in cells depleted of CAF1, NOT1, or the decapping DCP1:DCP2 complex [3].
  • To determine in vivo gene targets of NURF, we performed whole genome expression analysis on mutants lacking the NURF-specific subunit NURF301 [4].
  • The predicted sequence of p55 reveals a WD repeat protein that is identical with the 55-kDa subunit of the Drosophila chromatin assembly factor (CAF-1) [5].
  • Immunological studies show that p55 is an integral subunit of NURF and is generally associated with polytene chromosomes [5].

Biological context of Caf1

  • In addition, the 1-MDa complex shares with the 600-kDa complex the histone binding protein p55 and the PcG protein SU(Z)12 [6].
  • The assembly of chromatin by dCAF-1, dCAF-4, purified histones, ATP, and DNA is a process that generates regularly spaced nucleosomal arrays with a repeat length that resembles that of bulk native Drosophila chromatin and is not obligatorily coupled to DNA replication [1].
  • We discuss the importance of the PCNA-CAF-1 interaction in the context of DNA damage processing and checkpoint control [7].
  • Notable examples are cells of the and peripheral nervous systems which express p55 from the early stages of neurogenesis through the remainder of embryogenesis and pole cells which transiently express p55 during portions of embryonic stages 10 and 11 [8].

Anatomical context of Caf1

  • During the third larval instar, the birth of immature neuroblasts within the ventral and midbrain ganglia, but not within the optic ganglia, is marked by a transient high level of p55 expression [8].
  • During larval development, p55 levels within the central nervous system remain high but substantial changes in the pattern of expression take place. p55 gradually disappears from the neuronal fibers of the central nervous system and from embryonic cell bodies [8].

Other interactions of Caf1

  • We found that the chromatin assembly factor p55/dCAF-1 is essential for the repression of dE2F2-regulated targets [9].
  • The analysis of native and recombinant dCAF-1 revealed an interaction between dCAF-1 and the Drosophila anti-silencing function 1 (dASF1) component of replication-coupling assembly factor (RCAF) [10].
  • By analysing PRC2 subcomplexes, we show that Su(z)12-Nurf55 is the minimal nucleosome-binding module of PRC2 and that Esc contributes to high-affinity binding of PRC2 nucleosomes [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Caf1

  • We show by Western blotting that minor components of F-PHP-HA-associated proteins include TBP, TAF(II)42, TAF(II)85, and p55 [12].


  1. Assembly of regularly spaced nucleosome arrays by Drosophila chromatin assembly factor 1 and a 56-kDa histone-binding protein. Bulger, M., Ito, T., Kamakaka, R.T., Kadonaga, J.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. ACF, an ISWI-containing and ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodeling factor. Ito, T., Bulger, M., Pazin, M.J., Kobayashi, R., Kadonaga, J.T. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. mRNA degradation by miRNAs and GW182 requires both CCR4:NOT deadenylase and DCP1:DCP2 decapping complexes. Behm-Ansmant, I., Rehwinkel, J., Doerks, T., Stark, A., Bork, P., Izaurralde, E. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The Drosophila nucleosome remodeling factor NURF is required for Ecdysteroid signaling and metamorphosis. Badenhorst, P., Xiao, H., Cherbas, L., Kwon, S.Y., Voas, M., Rebay, I., Cherbas, P., Wu, C. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Drosophila NURF-55, a WD repeat protein involved in histone metabolism. Martínez-Balbás, M.A., Tsukiyama, T., Gdula, D., Wu, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. A 1-megadalton ESC/E(Z) complex from Drosophila that contains polycomblike and RPD3. Tie, F., Prasad-Sinha, J., Birve, A., Rasmuson-Lestander, A., Harte, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. A CAF-1-PCNA-mediated chromatin assembly pathway triggered by sensing DNA damage. Moggs, J.G., Grandi, P., Quivy, J.P., Jónsson, Z.O., Hübscher, U., Becker, P.B., Almouzni, G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Differential expression of alternate forms of a Drosophila src protein during embryonic and larval tissue differentiation. Wadsworth, S.C., Muckenthaler, F.A., Vincent, W.S. Dev. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. p55, the Drosophila ortholog of RbAp46/RbAp48, is required for the repression of dE2F2/RBF-regulated genes. Taylor-Harding, B., Binné, U.K., Korenjak, M., Brehm, A., Dyson, N.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Interaction between the Drosophila CAF-1 and ASF1 chromatin assembly factors. Tyler, J.K., Collins, K.A., Prasad-Sinha, J., Amiott, E., Bulger, M., Harte, P.J., Kobayashi, R., Kadonaga, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleosome binding and histone methyltransferase activity of Drosophila PRC2. Nekrasov, M., Wild, B., Müller, J. EMBO Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Polyhomeotic stably associates with molecular chaperones Hsc4 and Droj2 in Drosophila Kc1 cells. Wang, Y.J., Brock, H.W. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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