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Chemical Compound Review

Canderel     3-amino-3-[(1- methoxycarbonyl-2-phenyl...

Synonyms: Aminosweet, Equal, Tri-sweet, Asp-phe-ome, SureCN3637, ...
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Disease relevance of aspartame


Psychiatry related information on aspartame


High impact information on aspartame


Chemical compound and disease context of aspartame


Biological context of aspartame

  • Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight [21].
  • Aspartame metabolism in normal adults, phenylketonuric heterozygotes, and diabetic subjects [22].
  • Effects of aspartame (aspartyl-phenylalanine-methylester) on increases in brain-tryptophan level and hydroxylation rate following a high-carbohydrate, protein-free meal were tested [23].
  • Unexpected pain relief noted by A.B.E., a crystallographer with diagnosed osteoarthritis, suggested that the accommodation of aspartame in the active site of the dimer may represent surrogate binding by other proteins, with analgesia as the outcome [24].
  • Using this method, we found no clear symptom complex that suggests a widespread public health hazard associated with aspartame use; however, we identified some case reports in which the symptoms may be attributable to aspartame in commonly-consumed amounts [25].

Anatomical context of aspartame


Associations of aspartame with other chemical compounds


Gene context of aspartame


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aspartame

  • If double-blind studies confirm that some people have symptoms caused by aspartame ingestion, it would be appropriate to test such individuals for deficiency of cytosolic Asp-Phe hydrolase activity [12].
  • The effects of aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester; APM) on the neurological status of children with well-documented seizures were examined in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study [38].
  • However, the total duration of spike-wave discharge per hour was significantly increased after aspartame (p = 0.028), with a 40% +/- 17% (SEM) increase in the number of seconds per hour of EEG recording that the children spent in spike-wave discharge [37].
  • A single-blind (n = 1) study to confirm analgesia was completed by administration of aspartame to A.B.E. A controlled double-blind trial was performed in patients with x-ray-documented osteoarthritis [24].
  • For the in vivo studies, a decreased number of sickled cells in homozygous blood (HbSS) were observed after oral administration of aspartame [15].


  1. Aspartame and susceptibility to headache. Schiffman, S.S., Buckley, C.E., Sampson, H.A., Massey, E.W., Baraniuk, J.N., Follett, J.V., Warwick, Z.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Migraine provoked by aspartame. Johns, D.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Aspartame consumption in relation to childhood brain tumor risk: results from a case-control study. Gurney, J.G., Pogoda, J.M., Holly, E.A., Hecht, S.S., Preston-Martin, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Aspartame may imperil dietary control of phenylketonuria. Güttler, F., Lou, H. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Aspartame-induced urticaria. Kulczycki, A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Aspartame and memory loss. Moser, R.H. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Panic attacks and excessive aspartame ingestion. Drake, M.E. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. CSF biochemistries, glucose metabolism, and diurnal activity rhythms in alcoholic, violent offenders, fire setters, and healthy volunteers. Virkkunen, M., Rawlings, R., Tokola, R., Poland, R.E., Guidotti, A., Nemeroff, C., Bissette, G., Kalogeras, K., Karonen, S.L., Linnoila, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Adverse reactions to aspartame: double-blind challenge in patients from a vulnerable population. Walton, R.G., Hudak, R., Green-Waite, R.J. Biol. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Aspartame, behavior, and cognitive function in children with attention deficit disorder. Shaywitz, B.A., Sullivan, C.M., Anderson, G.M., Gillespie, S.M., Sullivan, B., Shaywitz, S.E. Pediatrics (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. High doses of aspartame reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maher, T.J., Wurtman, R.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Intestinal hydrolysis of aspartylphenylalanine--the metabolic product of aspartame. Tobey, N.A., Heizer, W.D. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Aspartame-induced granulomatous panniculitis. Novick, N.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Aspartame as a cause of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Roberts, H.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Aspartame effect in sickle cell anemia. Manion, C.V., Howard, J., Ogle, B., Parkhurst, J., Edmundson, A. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Metabolic effects of adding sucrose and aspartame to the diet of subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Colagiuri, S., Miller, J.J., Edwards, R.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients. Horwitz, D.L., McLane, M., Kobe, P. Diabetes Care (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Aspartame ingestion increases urinary calcium, but not oxalate excretion, in healthy subjects. Nguyen, U.N., Dumoulin, G., Henriet, M.T., Regnard, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of aspartame loading on plasma and erythrocyte free amino acid concentrations in one-year-old infants. Filer, L.J., Baker, G.L., Stegink, L.D. J. Nutr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Biochemical and clinical effects of aspartame in patients with chronic, stable alcoholic liver disease. Hertelendy, Z.I., Mendenhall, C.L., Rouster, S.D., Marshall, L., Weesner, R. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. Tordoff, M.G., Alleva, A.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Aspartame metabolism in normal adults, phenylketonuric heterozygotes, and diabetic subjects. Filer, L.J., Stegink, L.D. Diabetes Care (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of aspartame ingestion on the carbohydrate-induced rise in tryptophan hydroxylation rate in rat brain. Fernstrom, J.D., Fernstrom, M.H., Grubb, P.E. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Treatment of osteoarthritis with aspartame. Edmundson, A.B., Manion, C.V. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation of reactions to food additives: the aspartame experience. Bradstock, M.K., Serdula, M.K., Marks, J.S., Barnard, R.J., Crane, N.T., Remington, P.L., Trowbridge, F.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Erythrocyte L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine hydrolase activity and plasma phenylalanine and aspartate concentrations in children consuming diets high in aspartame. Stegink, L.D., Lindgren, S.D., Brummel, M.C., Stumbo, P.J., Wolraich, M.L. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Glutamatergic receptor kinetics are not altered by perinatal exposure to aspartame. Reilly, M.A., Lajtha, A. Neurochem. Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Failure of aspartame to affect seizure susceptibility in kindled rats. Cain, D.P., Boon, F., Bevan, M. Neuropharmacology (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Amino acids, monoamines and audiogenic seizures in genetically epilepsy-prone rats: effects of aspartame. Dailey, J.W., Lasley, S.M., Burger, R.L., Bettendorf, A.F., Mishra, P.K., Jobe, P.C. Epilepsy Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of aspartame on 45Ca influx and LDH leakage from nerve cells in culture. Sonnewald, U., Müller, T., Unsgård, G., Petersen, S.B. Neuroreport (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Aspartame use by persons with diabetes. Nehrling, J.K., Kobe, P., McLane, M.P., Olson, R.E., Kamath, S., Horwitz, D.L. Diabetes Care (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Aspartame and its constituent amino acids: effects on prolactin, cortisol, growth hormone, insulin, and glucose in normal humans. Carlson, H.E., Shah, J.H. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  33. Effect of precursors on the synthesis of catecholamines and on neurotransmission in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. Zhang, C., Bordet, S., Karoum, F., Commissiong, J.W. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Riboflavin-Binding Protein Exhibits Selective Sweet Suppression toward Protein Sweeteners. Maehashi, K., Matano, M., Kondo, A., Yamamoto, Y., Udaka, S. Chem. Senses (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of long-term ingestion of aspartame on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y, plasma leptin and body weight gain and composition. Beck, B., Burlet, A., Max, J.P., Stricker-Krongrad, A. Physiol. Behav. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Physiological mechanisms mediating aspartame-induced satiety. Hall, W.L., Millward, D.J., Rogers, P.J., Morgan, L.M. Physiol. Behav. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Aspartame exacerbates EEG spike-wave discharge in children with generalized absence epilepsy: a double-blind controlled study. Camfield, P.R., Camfield, C.S., Dooley, J.M., Gordon, K., Jollymore, S., Weaver, D.F. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Aspartame has no effect on seizures or epileptiform discharges in epileptic children. Shaywitz, B.A., Anderson, G.M., Novotny, E.J., Ebersole, J.S., Sullivan, C.M., Gillespie, S.M. Ann. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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