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Gene Review

DELTA-TIP  -  aquaporin TIP2-1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: AQP1, ATTIP2;1, DELTA-TIP1, TIP2;1, delta tonoplast integral protein
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High impact information on DELTA-TIP

  • Many aquaporins are mercury sensitive, and in AQP1, a mercury-sensitive cysteine residue (Cys-189) is present adjacent to a conserved Asn-Pro-Ala motif [1].
  • Tonoplast intrinsic proteins AtTIP2;1 and AtTIP2;3 facilitate NH3 transport into the vacuole [2].
  • AtTIP2;1 expression in Xenopus oocytes increased 14C-methylammonium accumulation with increasing pH [2].
  • This study shows that AtTIP2;1 and AtTIP2;3 can mediate the extracytosolic transport of methyl-NH2 and NH3 across the tonoplast membrane and may thus participate in vacuolar ammonium compartmentation [2].
  • Both genes, AtTIP2;1 and AtTIP2;3, encode aquaporins of the tonoplast intrinsic protein subfamily and transported methylammonium or ammonium in yeast preferentially at high medium pH [2].

Biological context of DELTA-TIP


Associations of DELTA-TIP with chemical compounds

  • AtTIP2;1- and AtTIP2;3-mediated methylammonium detoxification in yeast depended on a functional vacuole, which was in agreement with the subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-fusion proteins on the tonoplast in planta [2].
  • Uptake studies using 14C-labeled urea into AtTIP2;1-expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that AtTIP2;1 facilitated urea transport also in a pH-independent manner and with linear concentration dependency [3].

Other interactions of DELTA-TIP

  • Subcellular localization of green fluorescent protein-fused AtTIPs indicated that AtTIP1;2, AtTIP2;1, and AtTIP4;1 were targeted mainly to the tonoplast and other endomembranes [3].


  1. Characterization of a new vacuolar membrane aquaporin sensitive to mercury at a unique site. Daniels, M.J., Chaumont, F., Mirkov, T.E., Chrispeels, M.J. Plant Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Tonoplast intrinsic proteins AtTIP2;1 and AtTIP2;3 facilitate NH3 transport into the vacuole. Loqué, D., Ludewig, U., Yuan, L., von Wirén, N. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Urea transport by nitrogen-regulated tonoplast intrinsic proteins in Arabidopsis. Liu, L.H., Ludewig, U., Gassert, B., Frommer, W.B., von Wirén, N. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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