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Chemical Compound Review

azaniumyl     nitrogen(+1) trihydride cation

Synonyms: ammoniumyl, CHEBI:29421, NH3(+), (NH3)(.+), trihydridonitrogen(.1+)
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Disease relevance of ammoniumyl

  • These observations demonstrated that metabolic acidosis in vivo stimulated total NH3 production in isolated mouse proximal tubule segments and that low peritubular pH and HCO-3 stimulated total NH3 production by proximal tubule segments from nonacidotic mice in vitro [1].
  • The decrease in collecting duct ammonium secretion in hyperkalemia was associated with a decrease in the NH3 concentration difference between vasa recta and collecting duct [2].
  • Crystal structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis [3].
  • The reaction between a5RuH2O2+ (a is NH3) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin at pH 7, followed by oxidation, yields a5Ru(His-83)3+-azurin(Cu2+) as the major product [4].
  • Streptococcus lactis metabolizes arginine via the arginine deiminase pathway to ornithine, CO2, NH3, and ATP [5].

Psychiatry related information on ammoniumyl


High impact information on ammoniumyl

  • Consequently, the distribution of NH+4 in biological systems is generally believed to be due to the rapid diffusion and equilibration of lipophilic NH3 across cell membranes and the accumulation of NH+4 to be governed by pH differences between compartments [7].
  • We had already shown that synthetic peptides corresponding to the NH3-terminal region of the glycoprotein D (gD) molecule of HSV could induce a strong T cell response when injected into mice, but did not, by themselves, confer protection [8].
  • The fall in the NH3 concentration difference across the collecting duct in high-K+ rats was due entirely to a decrease in [NH3] in the medullary interstitial fluid, with no change in [NH3] in the collecting duct [2].
  • In the presence of 4 mM adenosine, NH3 production per erythrocyte (RBC) was equal to that per neutrophil (PMN) (3.3 X 10(-15) mol/cell per h) [9].
  • Similarly, the concentration gradient favoring transfer of NH3 between loop of Henle and CD was reduced in SAD [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of ammoniumyl

  • We examined the effects of metabolic acidosis in vivo and reduced bath and luminal pH in vitro on total NH3 (NH3 + NH+4) production rates by isolated mouse proximal tubule segments [1].
  • It is not surprising that a compound with such unique properties as NH3/NH4+, should have a large variety of biochemical and neurological effects and to find itself implicated in many pathological conditions [11].
  • These data demonstrate that this enzyme from E. coli is not strictly a XMP aminase but is, in fact, an amidotransferase capable of utilizing either glutamine or NH3 as a substrate [12].
  • Glutamate synthase from Escherichia coli K-12 exhibits NH3-dependent activity [13].
  • Cerebral blood flow (CBF), measured by the noninvasive xenon-133 inhalation method, EEG, and plasma levels of ammonia (NH3) and free tryptophan were determined in 18 hospitalized cirrhotic patients affected with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy, as diagnosed by the Kurtz test [14].

Biological context of ammoniumyl

  • This results in the formation of NH3, which then neutralizes the bacterial periplasm to provide a pH of approximately 6.2 and an inner membrane potential of -101 mV, giving a proton motive force of approximately -200 mV [15].
  • Similarly, all analogs of CA(1-7)M(2-9)-NH2 were active against four strains, while two strains were resistant to the retro and retroenantio analogs containing free NH3+ end groups, but acetylation restored activity against one of them [16].
  • Several potential intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the charged NH3 groups of tobramycin and acceptor atoms on base pair edges and backbone phosphates anchor the aminoglycoside antibiotic within its sequence/structure specific RNA binding pocket [17].
  • Urea cycle enzymes and glutamine synthetase are essential for NH3 detoxification and systemic pH homeostasis in mammals [18].
  • The NH3-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified antigen was determined [19].

Anatomical context of ammoniumyl


Associations of ammoniumyl with other chemical compounds

  • Reducing the HCO3- concentration of the bath buffer to 10 mM while maintaining a pH of 7.4 had no significant effect on total NH3 production by tubules from nonacidotic mice [1].
  • In addition, increasing the perfusion flow rate at a constant perfusion pressure increased the rate of luminal output of NH3 [24].
  • Addition of 5 mmol/L urea to weak buffer at pH 3.0 or 3.5 prevented irreversible collapse of PD by elevation of pHout caused by NH3 production [25].
  • An apical permeability barrier to NH3/NH4+ in isolated, perfused colonic crypts [26].
  • Here we present three crystal structures of nitrophorin 1 (NP1): bound to cyanide, which binds in a manner similar to NO (2.3 A resolution); bound to histamine (2.0 A resolution); and bound to what appears to be NH3 from the crystallization solution (2.0 A resolution) [27].

Gene context of ammoniumyl


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ammoniumyl

  • The increased rate of NH3 production with perfusion seems not to depend upon normal rates of sodium reabsorption [24].
  • The three-dimensional structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis, in its free form and in complex with ATP, has been solved by X-ray crystallography (at 2.6 and 2.0 angstroms resolution, respectively) using a combination of multiple isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques [3].
  • Some of the chemical properties of oligonucleotides containing these bases (reactivity towards NH3) as well as their physical properties (melting temperatures, U.V., fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra) have been determined and are discussed [33].
  • The protected nonapeptide Z-penicillamine(Bzl)-Tyr-Ile-Leu-Asn-Cys(Bzl)-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2 was treated with Na in NH3 and the resulting disulfhydryl compound was subjected to oxidative cyclization in H2O-CH3OH with ICH2CH2I, Purification of 2 was effected by partition chromatography and gel filtration [34].
  • The specific activities (nmol of product produced/min per mg of protein) determined from activity titration curves were: under N2, NH3 formation 110, with concomitant H2 evolution of 220; under argon, H2 evolution 350; under 10% acetylene (C2H2) in argon, ethylene (C2H4) 58, ethane (C2H6) 26, and concomitant H2 evolution 226 [35].


  1. Ammonia production by isolated mouse proximal tubules perfused in vitro. Effect of metabolic acidosis. Nagami, G.T., Sonu, C.M., Kurokawa, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Chronic hyperkalemia impairs ammonium transport and accumulation in the inner medulla of the rat. DuBose, T.D., Good, D.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Crystal structure of NH3-dependent NAD+ synthetase from Bacillus subtilis. Rizzi, M., Nessi, C., Mattevi, A., Coda, A., Bolognesi, M., Galizzi, A. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Preparation and characterization of pentaammineruthenium-(histidine-83)azurin: thermodynamics of intramolecular electron transfer from ruthenium to copper. Margalit, R., Kostić, N.M., Che, C.M., Blair, D.F., Chiang, H.J., Pecht, I., Shelton, J.B., Shelton, J.R., Schroeder, W.A., Gray, H.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Arginine transport in Streptococcus lactis is catalyzed by a cationic exchanger. Driessen, A.J., Poolman, B., Kiewiet, R., Konings, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Technological parameters of the ammonolysis of waste 1,2-dichloropropane. Bartkowiak, M., Lewandowski, G., Milchert, E. Journal of hazardous materials. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell membranes impermeable to NH3. Kikeri, D., Sun, A., Zeidel, M.L., Hebert, S.C. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. A synthetic peptide induces long-term protection from lethal infection with herpes simplex virus 2. Watari, E., Dietzschold, B., Szokan, G., Heber-Katz, E. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. The erythrocyte as instigator of inflammation. Generation of amidated C3 by erythrocyte adenosine deaminase. Hostetter, M.K., Johnson, G.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of selective aldosterone deficiency on acidification in nephron segments of the rat inner medulla. DuBose, T.D., Caflisch, C.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of ammonium ions on synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Szerb, J.C., Butterworth, R.F. Prog. Neurobiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Xanthosine-5'-phosphate amidotransferase from Escherichia coli. Patel, N., Moyed, H.S., Kane, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Properties of apoglutamate synthase and comparison with glutamate dehydrogenase. Mäntsälä, P., Zalkin, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Reduction of cerebral blood flow in subclinical hepatic encephalopathy and its correlation with plasma-free tryptophan. Rodriguez, G., Testa, R., Celle, G., Gris, A., Marenco, S., Nobili, F., Novellone, G., Rosadini, G. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. The gastric biology of Helicobacter pylori. Sachs, G., Weeks, D.L., Melchers, K., Scott, D.R. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Retro and retroenantio analogs of cecropin-melittin hybrids. Merrifield, R.B., Juvvadi, P., Andreu, D., Ubach, J., Boman, A., Boman, H.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Solution structure of the tobramycin-RNA aptamer complex. Jiang, L., Patel, D.J. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatocytes explanted in the spleen preferentially express carbamoylphosphate synthetase rather than glutamine synthetase. Lamers, W.H., Been, W., Charles, R., Moorman, A.F. Hepatology (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning of a tumor-associated antigen: MOv18 and MOv19 antibodies recognize a folate-binding protein. Coney, L.R., Tomassetti, A., Carayannopoulos, L., Frasca, V., Kamen, B.A., Colnaghi, M.I., Zurawski, V.R. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Tonoplast intrinsic proteins AtTIP2;1 and AtTIP2;3 facilitate NH3 transport into the vacuole. Loqué, D., Ludewig, U., Yuan, L., von Wirén, N. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Ultrastructure, pharmacologic inhibition, and transport selectivity of aquaporin channel-forming integral protein in proteoliposomes. Zeidel, M.L., Nielsen, S., Smith, B.L., Ambudkar, S.V., Maunsbach, A.B., Agre, P. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Glucagon and ammonia influence the long-term regulation of phosphate-dependent glutaminase activity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. McGivan, J.D., Boon, K., Doyle, F.A. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. The apparent Km of ammonia for carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (ammonia) in situ. Cohen, N.S., Kyan, F.S., Kyan, S.S., Cheung, C.W., Raijman, L. Biochem. J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of ammonia production by mouse proximal tubules perfused in vitro. Effect of luminal perfusion. Nagami, G.T., Kurokawa, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. The effect of environmental pH on the proton motive force of Helicobacter pylori. Meyer-Rosberg, K., Scott, D.R., Rex, D., Melchers, K., Sachs, G. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. An apical permeability barrier to NH3/NH4+ in isolated, perfused colonic crypts. Singh, S.K., Binder, H.J., Geibel, J.P., Boron, W.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Crystal structures of a nitric oxide transport protein from a blood-sucking insect. Weichsel, A., Andersen, J.F., Champagne, D.E., Walker, F.A., Montfort, W.R. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Divergent N-terminal regions in AMP deaminase and isoform-specific catalytic properties of the enzyme. Bausch-Jurken, M.T., Sabina, R.L. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Molecular cloning, gene structure, and expression analyses of NKD1 and NKD2. Katoh, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of O2 availability on neuroendocrine variables at rest and during exercise: O2 breathing increases plasma prolactin. Strüder, H.K., Hollmann, W., Donike, M., Platen, P., Weber, K. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Nucleotide sequence of Escherichia coli pyrG encoding CTP synthetase. Weng, M., Makaroff, C.A., Zalkin, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Basolateral Na+-dependent HCO3- transporter NBCn1-mediated HCO3- influx in rat medullary thick ascending limb. Odgaard, E., Jakobsen, J.K., Frische, S., Praetorius, J., Nielsen, S., Aalkjaer, C., Leipziger, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Synthesis and properties of oligonucleotides containing 4-thiothymidine, 5-methyl-2-pyrimidinone-1-beta-D(2'-deoxyriboside) and 2-thiothymidine. Connolly, B.A., Newman, P.C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Synthesis and pharmacological properties of [1-L-penicillamine,4-L-leucine]oxytocin. Ferger, M.F., Chan, W.Y. J. Med. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  35. Molybdenum-independent nitrogenases of Azotobacter vinelandii: a functional species of alternative nitrogenase-3 isolated from a molybdenum-tolerant strain contains an iron-molybdenum cofactor. Pau, R.N., Eldridge, M.E., Lowe, D.J., Mitchenall, L.A., Eady, R.R. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
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