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Gene Review

TFL2  -  chromo domain-containing protein LHP1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on TFL2

  • In contrast, a heterochromatin protein 1 homolog, LHP1, had no effect on PAI methylation [1].
  • Our results imply that LHP1 recruitment to chromatin is mediated, at least in part, through interaction with methyl K9 and that LHP1 controls different nuclear processes via transient binding to its nuclear sites [2].
  • Mutations in TFL2 derepress FT expression within the vascular tissues of leaves, resulting in daylength-independent early flowering [3].
  • No single loss-of-function mutation in the histone methyltransferases studied disrupted the vernalization response; however, lhp1 mutants revealed a role for LHP1 in maintaining epigenetic silencing of FLC [4].
  • Like LHP1, VRN1 functions in both flowering-time control and vernalization [4].

Biological context of TFL2

  • The enhanced phenotype of the double mutant suggests that TFL2 acts in a developmental pathway distinct from TFL1 [5].
  • TERMINAL FLOWER2 (TFL2) is the only homolog of heterochromatin protein1 (HP1) in the Arabidopsis genome [6].
  • Instead, TFL2 acts as a repressor of genes related to plant development, i.e. flowering, floral organ identity, meiosis and seed maturation [6].
  • In A. thaliana interphase nuclei, LHP1 was predominantly located outside the heterochromatic chromocenters [7].
  • Furthermore, like the animal HP1beta and HP1gamma subtypes, LHP1 dissociates from chromosomes during mitosis [7].

Associations of TFL2 with chemical compounds

  • However, the transcript level of the TU8/TFL2 gene after heat shock and jasmonate treatment did not change [8].

Regulatory relationships of TFL2


Other interactions of TFL2

  • LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TFL2


  1. An Arabidopsis SET domain protein required for maintenance but not establishment of DNA methylation. Malagnac, F., Bartee, L., Bender, J. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Different domains control the localization and mobility of LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 in Arabidopsis nuclei. Zemach, A., Li, Y., Ben-Meir, H., Oliva, M., Mosquna, A., Kiss, V., Avivi, Y., Ohad, N., Grafi, G. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Terminal flower2, an Arabidopsis homolog of heterochromatin protein1, counteracts the activation of flowering locus T by constans in the vascular tissues of leaves to regulate flowering time. Takada, S., Goto, K. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC. Mylne, J.S., Barrett, L., Tessadori, F., Mesnage, S., Johnson, L., Bernatavichute, Y.V., Jacobsen, S.E., Fransz, P., Dean, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. The TERMINAL FLOWER2 (TFL2) gene controls the reproductive transition and meristem identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Larsson, A.S., Landberg, K., Meeks-Wagner, D.R. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. The Arabidopsis heterochromatin protein1 homolog (TERMINAL FLOWER2) silences genes within the euchromatic region but not genes positioned in heterochromatin. Nakahigashi, K., Jasencakova, Z., Schubert, I., Goto, K. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The Arabidopsis LHP1 protein is a component of euchromatin. Libault, M., Tessadori, F., Germann, S., Snijder, B., Fransz, P., Gaudin, V. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The tu8 mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a heterochromatin protein 1 homolog causes defects in the induction of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Bennett, R.N., Wenke, T., Freudenberg, B., Mellon, F.A., Ludwig-Müller, J. Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER 2 gene encodes a heterochromatin protein 1 homolog and represses both FLOWERING LOCUS T to regulate flowering time and several floral homeotic genes. Kotake, T., Takada, S., Nakahigashi, K., Ohto, M., Goto, K. Plant Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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