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Gene Review

LYS4  -  homoaconitate hydratase LYS4

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Homoaconitase, mitochondrial, Homoaconitate hydratase, LYS3, YD8419.01, YD9934.18, ...
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High impact information on LYS4

  • Furthermore, loss of H3 Lys4 methylation in a set1 Delta strain can be rescued by SET1 [1].
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that H3 Lys4 methylation is present at the rDNA locus and that Set1-mediated H3 Lys4 methylation is required for repression of RNA polymerase II transcription within rDNA [1].
  • To identify the responsible methyltransferase(s) and to gain insight into the function of H3 Lys4 methylation, we have developed a histone H3 Lys4 methyl-specific antiserum [1].
  • Consistent with this observation, overexpression of the lys4+ gene increased HCS enzyme activity and was sufficient to suppress the lysine requirement of the CuZn-SOD-deficient cells [2].
  • These cells carry elevated levels of methylated histone H3-Lys4 and reduced levels of methylated histone H3-Lys9 [3].

Biological context of LYS4


Anatomical context of LYS4

  • We suggest that the relatively high levels of O(2)(-) in the cytosol and intermembrane space of the SOD1 mutant may react with endogenous NO, forming HOONO that can diffuse into the mitochondrial matrix and there inactivate Lys4p and other [4Fe-4S]-containing dehydratases [9].
  • O(2)(-) is known to oxidize and thus destabilize the [Fe-4S] clusters of dehydratases; hence, this would make perfect sense were it not for the fact that SOD1 localizes to the cytosol and the intermembrane space of mitochondria, whereas Lys4p localizes to the mitochondrial matrix [9].
  • The methylation characteristics of RL40 were distinct from those of ribosomal protein RL29 in the rat, which was differentially monomethylated at Lys4 in the liver, brain and thymus (27%, > 99% and 95% methylation, respectively) [6].

Associations of LYS4 with chemical compounds

  • Thus, we conclude that when Sod1p is absent a lysine auxotrophy is induced because Lys4p is inactivated in the matrix by superoxide that originates in the intermembrane space and diffuses across the inner membrane [10].

Other interactions of LYS4

  • Surprisingly, Lys4p does not share a compartment with Sod1p but is located in the mitochondrial matrix [10].
  • The fungal-specific enzyme homoaconitate hydratase from this pathway is moderately similar to the aconitase-family proteins from a diverse array of taxonomic groups, which have varying modes of obtaining lysine [11].
  • With this antiserum, we show that deletion of SET1, but not of other putative SET domain-containing genes, in S. cerevisiae, results in the complete abolishment of H3 Lys4 methylation in vivo [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LYS4

  • Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry reveal that human CFP1 associates with a approximately 450-kDa complex that contains the mammalian homologues of six of the seven components of the Set1/COMPASS complex, the sole histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase in yeast [3].


  1. Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation is mediated by Set1 and required for cell growth and rDNA silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Briggs, S.D., Bryk, M., Strahl, B.D., Cheung, W.L., Davie, J.K., Dent, S.Y., Winston, F., Allis, C.D. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Inactivation of homocitrate synthase causes lysine auxotrophy in copper/zinc-containing superoxide dismutase-deficient yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Kwon, E.S., Jeong, J.H., Roe, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. CpG-binding protein (CXXC finger protein 1) is a component of the mammalian Set1 histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase complex, the analogue of the yeast Set1/COMPASS complex. Lee, J.H., Skalnik, D.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Ubp10/Dot4p regulates the persistence of ubiquitinated histone H2B: distinct roles in telomeric silencing and general chromatin. Gardner, R.G., Nelson, Z.W., Gottschling, D.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Cloning and physical characterization of linked lysine genes (lys4, lys15) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wang, L., Okamoto, S., Bhattacharjee, J.K. Curr. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Post-translational processing of rat ribosomal proteins. Ubiquitous methylation of Lys22 within the zinc-finger motif of RL40 (carboxy-terminal extension protein 52) and tissue-specific methylation of Lys4 in RL29. Williamson, N.A., Raliegh, J., Morrice, N.A., Wettenhall, R.E. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Lysine is synthesized through the alpha-aminoadipate pathway in Thermus thermophilus. Kosuge, T., Hoshino, T. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. MLL Core Components Give the Green Light to Histone Methylation. Crawford, B.D., Hess, J.L. ACS chemical biology (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Cross-compartment protection by SOD1. Liochev, S.I., Fridovich, I. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Superoxide inhibits 4Fe-4S cluster enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. Cross-compartment protection by CuZn-superoxide dismutase. Wallace, M.A., Liou, L.L., Martins, J., Clement, M.H., Bailey, S., Longo, V.D., Valentine, J.S., Gralla, E.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. A unique fungal lysine biosynthesis enzyme shares a common ancestor with tricarboxylic acid cycle and leucine biosynthetic enzymes found in diverse organisms. Irvin, S.D., Bhattacharjee, J.K. J. Mol. Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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