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Gene Review

IDH1  -  isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) IDH1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Isocitric dehydrogenase, N2690, NAD(+)-specific ICDH, YNL037C
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High impact information on IDH1

  • Supporting this, Mdh1p and Idh1p, both TCA cycle enzymes, were up-regulated in response to citric acid [1].
  • The expression of four additional TCA cycle genes downstream of IDH1 and IDH2 is independent of the RTG genes [2].
  • This is comparable to the dependence of AMP binding upon binding of isocitrate at the IDH1 regulatory site [3].
  • These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that the catalytic isocitrate binding sites are comprised of residues primarily contributed by IDH2, whereas sites for regulatory binding of isocitrate are contributed by analogous residues of IDH1 [3].
  • IDH2 was previously shown to contain the catalytic site, whereas IDH1 contributes regulatory properties including cooperativity with respect to isocitrate and allosteric activation by AMP [4].

Biological context of IDH1

  • In contrast, replacement of all four residues in IDH1 produced a 17-fold reduction in V(max) under the same assay conditions, suggesting that the IDH1 site is not the primary catalytic site [5].
  • The only other TCA cycle gene to display the glycerol-suppressor-accumulation phenotype was IDH1, which encodes the companion Idh1p subunit of NAD-IDH [6].
  • These results suggest that the nucleotide cofactor binding site is primarily contributed by the IDH2 subunit, whereas the homologous nucleotide binding site in IDH1 has evolved for regulatory binding of AMP [3].
  • The nucleotide sequence of the IDH1 coding region was determined and encodes a 360-residue polypeptide including an 11-residue mitochondrial targeting presequence [7].
  • However, transformants containing plasmids lacking either the IDH1 or IDH2 presequence coding regions were unexpectedly found to be capable of growth on acetate medium [8].

Anatomical context of IDH1


Associations of IDH1 with chemical compounds

  • Both subunits appear to contribute to cooperativity with respect to isocitrate, but AMP activation is lost only with residue replacements in IDH1 [5].
  • A model is presented for the primary function of IDH2 in catalysis and of IDH1 in regulation, with crucial roles for these single aspartate residues in the communication and functional interdependence of the two subunits [10].
  • In addition, the IDH1 disruption strains grew at wild type rates in the absence of glutamate, indicating that these strains are not glutamate auxotrophs [7].
  • In other mutant enzymes, an alanine replacement of Asp-191 in IDH1 eliminates measurable catalytic activity, and a similar substitution of the homologous Asp-197 in IDH2 produces pleiotropic catalytic effects [10].
  • These results suggest that the targeted aspartate/isoleucine residues may contribute to regulator binding in IDH1 and to cofactor binding in IDH2, i.e. that these homologous residues are located in regions that have evolved for binding the adenine nucleotide components of different ligands [10].

Physical interactions of IDH1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IDH1

  • A fragment of the IDH1 gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction method utilizing degenerate oligonucleotides based on tryptic peptide sequences of the purified subunit; this fragment was used to isolate a full length IDH1 clone [7].


  1. Evidence of a new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in yeast: regulating adaptation to citric acid stress. Lawrence, C.L., Botting, C.H., Antrobus, R., Coote, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. A transcriptional switch in the expression of yeast tricarboxylic acid cycle genes in response to a reduction or loss of respiratory function. Liu, Z., Butow, R.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Homologous binding sites in yeast isocitrate dehydrogenase for cofactor (NAD+) and allosteric activator (AMP). Lin, A.P., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Subunit interactions of yeast NAD+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase. Panisko, E.A., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Kinetic and physiological effects of alterations in homologous isocitrate-binding sites of yeast NAD(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase. Lin, A.P., McCammon, M.T., McAlister-Henn, L. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic and biochemical interactions involving tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) function using a collection of mutants defective in all TCA cycle genes. Przybyla-Zawislak, B., Gadde, D.M., Ducharme, K., McCammon, M.T. Genetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the IDH1 subunit of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cupp, J.R., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Assembly and function of a cytosolic form of NADH-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase in yeast. Zhao, W.N., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Subunit structure, expression, and function of NAD(H)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Keys, D.A., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Bacteriol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Affinity purification and kinetic analysis of mutant forms of yeast NAD+-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase. Zhao, W.N., McAlister-Henn, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
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