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Chemical Compound Review

citro hydrate     2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3- tricarboxylic acid...

Synonyms: AG-G-12063, CHEMBL2107737, ACMC-20alep, AC1L2JZQ, LS-54370, ...
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Disease relevance of citric acid


Psychiatry related information on citric acid

  • Progressive alteration of the mitochondria, which occurs during chronic alcohol consumption, decreases fatty acid oxidation by interfering with citric acid cycle activity [6].
  • Clinical evaluation of a citric acid inhaler for smoking cessation [7].
  • These results suggest that the citric acid aerosol may promote successful smoking reduction or cessation in a subgroup of smokers and relieves withdrawal symptoms such as craving for cigarettes, a symptom difficult to treat with currently available nicotine replacement techniques [7].
  • Additionally, the use of citric acid without the addition of supplemental Fe2+ in soil slurries, where the citric acid apparently extracted native metals from the soil, appeared to be somewhat effective at enhancing persulfate oxidation of TCE over extended reaction times [8].
  • The results showed that although citric acid at pH 3.0-5.0 was not aversive, at pH 1.4 or 2.0 citric acid was avoided by all animals, as indicated by both consummatory behavior and licking activity [9].

High impact information on citric acid


Chemical compound and disease context of citric acid


Biological context of citric acid


Anatomical context of citric acid

  • We hypothesized that the apparent defect in energy production results from a depletion of the catalytic intermediates of the citric acid cycle via leakage through cell membranes (cataplerosis) [24].
  • A concentration of 1.0 mM Ca2+ provided the highest cell yield for prolonged growth as determined by the enumeration of cell nuclei isolated by citric acid [25].
  • A major polypeptide of M(r) 37,000 was purified from a desmosome-enriched citric acid-insoluble pellet of pig tongue epithelium [26].
  • Citric acid was highly effective in removing the outer nuclear membrane (ER) with concomitant reduction (< 10-fold) of mannose-6-phosphatase activity, but not p93 [27].
  • These studies indicate that leucine as well as a variety of substrates that are oxidized in the citric acid cycle are involved in regulation of protein turnover in heart muscle [28].

Associations of citric acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of citric acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of citric acid


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  2. Abnormal organic acidurias in mentally retarded patients. Watts, R.W., Chalmers, R.A., Lawson, A.M. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction during hypoxia/reoxygenation and its correction by anaerobic metabolism of citric acid cycle intermediates. Weinberg, J.M., Venkatachalam, M.A., Roeser, N.F., Nissim, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Fatty acid oxidation, substrate shuttles, and activity of the citric acid cycle in hepatocellular carcinomas of varying differentiation. Cederbaum, A.I., Rubin, E. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Binding of acridine orange to DNA in situ of cells from patients with acute leukemia. Walle, A.J., Wong, G.Y. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of ethanol on lipid metabolism. Baraona, E., Lieber, C.S. J. Lipid Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
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  8. Persulfate oxidation for in situ remediation of TCE. II. Activated by chelated ferrous ion. Liang, C., Bruell, C.J., Marley, M.C., Sperry, K.L. Chemosphere (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Amiloride reduces the aversiveness of acids in preference tests. Gilbertson, D.M., Gilbertson, T.A. Physiol. Behav. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  12. Active transport of Ca2+ by an artificial photosynthetic membrane. Bennett, I.M., Farfano, H.M., Bogani, F., Primak, A., Liddell, P.A., Otero, L., Sereno, L., Silber, J.J., Moore, A.L., Moore, T.A., Gust, D. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Bradykinin-evoked sensitization of airway sensory nerves: a mechanism for ACE-inhibitor cough. Fox, A.J., Lalloo, U.G., Belvisi, M.G., Bernareggi, M., Chung, K.F., Barnes, P.J. Nat. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and some biochemical characteristics of nuclei from AH-66 hepatoma cells. Nakaya, K., Manabe, H., Ushiwata, A., Shibayama, T., Nakamura, Y. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Control of flux through the citric acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass in Escherichia coli. Holms, W.H. Biochem. Soc. Symp. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Restitution of cerebral energy state, as well as of glycolytic metabolites, citric acid cycle intermediates and associated amino acids after 30 minutes of complete ischemia in rats anaesthetized with nitrous oxide or phenobarbital. Nordström, C.H., Rehncrona, S., Siesjö, B.K. J. Neurochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Functions of the membrane-associated and cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases in the citric acid cycle of Escherichia coli. van der Rest, M.E., Frank, C., Molenaar, D. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Factors influencing Clostridium botulinum spore germination, outgrowth, and toxin formation in acidified media. Wong, D.M., Young-Perkins, K.E., Merson, R.L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Essential role of Isd11 in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster synthesis on Isu scaffold proteins. Wiedemann, N., Urzica, E., Guiard, B., Müller, H., Lohaus, C., Meyer, H.E., Ryan, M.T., Meisinger, C., Mühlenhoff, U., Lill, R., Pfanner, N. EMBO J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Rapamycin-modulated transcription defines the subset of nutrient-sensitive signaling pathways directly controlled by the Tor proteins. Hardwick, J.S., Kuruvilla, F.G., Tong, J.K., Shamji, A.F., Schreiber, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular control of vertebrate iron metabolism: mRNA-based regulatory circuits operated by iron, nitric oxide, and oxidative stress. Hentze, M.W., Kühn, L.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Genome expression analysis of Anopheles gambiae: responses to injury, bacterial challenge, and malaria infection. Dimopoulos, G., Christophides, G.K., Meister, S., Schultz, J., White, K.P., Barillas-Mury, C., Kafatos, F.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Coordination of citric acid cycle activity with electron transport flux. Williamson, J.R., Ford, C., Illingworth, J., Safer, B. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Treatment of cardiomyopathy and rhabdomyolysis in long-chain fat oxidation disorders using an anaplerotic odd-chain triglyceride. Roe, C.R., Sweetman, L., Roe, D.S., David, F., Brunengraber, H. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Approaches to enhance proliferation of human epidermal keratinocytes in mass culture. Price, F.M., Taylor, W.G., Camalier, R.F., Sanford, K.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
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  27. Identification and purification of a calcium-binding protein in hepatic nuclear membranes. Gilchrist, J.S., Pierce, G.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of leucine and metabolites of branched chain amino acids on protein turnover in heart. Chua, B., Siehl, D.L., Morgan, H.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Structure and biochemical composition of desmosomes and tonofilaments isolated from calf muzzle epidermis. Drochmans, P., Freudenstein, C., Wanson, J.C., Laurent, L., Keenan, T.W., Stadler, J., Leloup, R., Franke, W.W. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  30. Aconitase is a sensitive and critical target of oxygen poisoning in cultured mammalian cells and in rat lungs. Gardner, P.R., Nguyen, D.D., White, C.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Cortical representation of taste-modifying action of miracle fruit in humans. Yamamoto, C., Nagai, H., Takahashi, K., Nakagawa, S., Yamaguchi, M., Tonoike, M., Yamamoto, T. Neuroimage (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. Quantifying the carboxylation of pyruvate in pancreatic islets. Khan, A., Ling, Z.C., Landau, B.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Differentiation of murine macrophages to express nonspecific cytotoxicity for tumor cells results in L-arginine-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial iron-sulfur enzymes in the macrophage effector cells. Drapier, J.C., Hibbs, J.B. J. Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Evidence of a new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in yeast: regulating adaptation to citric acid stress. Lawrence, C.L., Botting, C.H., Antrobus, R., Coote, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. A role for the right anterior temporal lobe in taste quality recognition. Small, D.M., Jones-Gotman, M., Zatorre, R.J., Petrides, M., Evans, A.C. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Mathematical analysis of isotope labeling in the citric acid cycle with applications to 13C NMR studies in perfused rat hearts. Chance, E.M., Seeholzer, S.H., Kobayashi, K., Williamson, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. A citric acid solution is an optimal test drink in the 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Domínguez-Muñoz, J.E., Leodolter, A., Sauerbruch, T., Malfertheiner, P. Gut (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Evaluation of saliva as a specimen for monitoring zidovudine therapy in HIV-infected patients. Rolinski, B., Wintergerst, U., Matuschke, A., Füessl, H., Goebel, F.D., Roscher, A.A., Belohradsky, B.H. AIDS (1991) [Pubmed]
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