The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

citrate     2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3- tricarboxylate

Synonyms: citr, CITRATE ANION, AG-D-76265, CHEBI:16947, cit(3-), ...
This record was replaced with 311.
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of citric acid


Psychiatry related information on citric acid


High impact information on citric acid

  • Dimerization creates two identical pockets designed for binding ligands with multiple negative charges such as citrate or phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [11].
  • Here we show that retrograde regulation of the yeast CIT2 gene encoding peroxisomal citrate synthase depends on a new class of upstream activation site element (UASr) and two previously unidentified genes, RTG1 and RTG2 [12].
  • We conducted a three-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation (1000 mg of calcium citrate malate per day) on bone mineral density in 70 pairs of identical twins (mean [+/- SD] age, 10 +/- 2 years; range, 6 to 14) [13].
  • The median number of oocytes per patient recovered from those who received buserelin with HMG was 4 (range, 0 to 19), as compared with 0 (range, 0 to 5) in those who received clomiphene citrate with HMG [14].
  • Absorption of calcium from carbonate in patients with achlorhydria was significantly lower than in the normal subjects and was lower than absorption from citrate in either group; absorption from citrate in those with achlorhydria was significantly higher than in the normal subjects, as well as higher than absorption from carbonate in either group [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of citric acid


Biological context of citric acid

  • An agaropectin binding site was identified on hemoglobin by computer-assisted modeling, and the relation of the site to hemoglobin variants that exhibit abnormal citrate agar mobility was established [20].
  • Both agents stimulated acid phosphatase activity and hyaluronate synthesis in the CT cells and decreased alkaline phosphatase, citrate decarboxylation, and collagen synthesis in the PT cells [21].
  • In vitro phosphorylation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increased the Vmax of the enzyme and decreased its sensitivity to the inhibitor citrate [22].
  • Follicle growth was stimulated with clomiphene citrate, sometimes combined with human menopausal gonadotropin, and ovulation was triggered off with human chorionic gonadotropin [23].
  • Krebs cycle intermediates such as succinate, citrate, and alpha-ketoglutarate are transferred across plasma membranes of cells by secondary active transporters that couple the downhill movement of sodium to the concentrative uptake of substrate [24].

Anatomical context of citric acid

  • Iron was shown to be directly involved in lytic efficiency by supplementation studies with 2 microM iron citrate; such supplementation increased PMN cytotoxicity by approximately 30%, but had much less effect on erythrocyte lysis by neutroplasts (approximately 3% increase), and no effect on lysis in the enzymatic oxygen radical-generating systems [25].
  • Citrate-treated C57BL/6 mice fed the Ath diet showed extensive oil red O-staining fatty streak aortic sinus lesions (20,537+/-2,957 micron2), the size of which did not differ for Ath-fed mice treated with STZ (16,836+/-2,136 micron2) [26].
  • Gallium-67 citrate uptake by cultured tumor cells, stimulated by serum transferrin [27].
  • Zinc citrate, human milk, and acrodermatitis enteropathica [28].
  • Our data demonstrate that the major citrate-soluble protein of precipitates in pancreatic juice is identical with "stone protein". They are strongly support the concept that this protein is the organic matrix of pancreatic stones [29].

Associations of citric acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of citric acid

  • Selective inhibition of the citrate-to-isocitrate reaction of cytosolic aconitase by phosphomimetic mutation of serine-711 [34].
  • Most of the aneuploid regions were the result of translocations, including three instances of a shared breakpoint on chromosome 14 immediately adjacent to CIT1, which encodes the citrate synthase that performs a key regulated step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle [35].
  • Deleting this tripeptide from the CIT2 protein caused peroxisomal citrate synthase to be missorted to mitochondria [36].
  • In HH, plasma nontransferrin-bound iron (NTBI) levels are increased and NTBI is bound mainly by citrate [37].
  • Also, the transcriptional regulator CYC8, which mediates glucose derepression, was required for adaptation to citric acid to allow cells to metabolize excess citrate via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of citric acid


  1. Hypoparathyroidism in Wilson's disease. Carpenter, T.O., Carnes, D.L., Anast, C.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Calcium absorption and achlorhydria. Recker, R.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Clomiphene citrate and liver-cell adenoma. Carrasco, D., Barrachina, M., Prieto, M., Berenguer, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Pregnancies in humans by fertilization in vitro and embryo transfer in the controlled ovulatory cycle. Trounson, A.O., Leeton, J.F., Wood, C., Webb, J., Wood, J. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. 67Ga lung scan. An aid in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and pneumonitis. Niden, A.H., Mishkin, F.S., Khurana, M.M., Pick, R. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Treatment of erectile dysfunction with sildenafil citrate (Viagra) in parkinsonism due to Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy with observations on orthostatic hypotension. Hussain, I.F., Brady, C.M., Swinn, M.J., Mathias, C.J., Fowler, C.J. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Stimulatory action of itopride hydrochloride on colonic motor activity in vitro and in vivo. Tsubouchi, T., Saito, T., Mizutani, F., Yamauchi, T., Iwanaga, Y. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cerebrospinal fluid in neurodegenerative disease: indication of glial energy impairment in Huntington chorea, but not Parkinson disease. Gårseth, M., Sonnewald, U., White, L.R., Rød, M., Zwart, J.A., Nygaard, O., Aasly, J. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Citrate ions enhance taste responses to amino acids in the largemouth bass. Ogawa, K., Caprio, J. J. Neurophysiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of diet in the pathogenesis and therapy of nephrolithiasis. Goldfarb, S. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Crystal structure of the VHS and FYVE tandem domains of Hrs, a protein involved in membrane trafficking and signal transduction. Mao, Y., Nickitenko, A., Duan, X., Lloyd, T.E., Wu, M.N., Bellen, H., Quiocho, F.A. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. RTG1 and RTG2: two yeast genes required for a novel path of communication from mitochondria to the nucleus. Liao, X., Butow, R.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. Johnston, C.C., Miller, J.Z., Slemenda, C.W., Reister, T.K., Hui, S., Christian, J.C., Peacock, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. A controlled study of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (buserelin) for the induction of folliculogenesis before in vitro fertilization. MacLachlan, V., Besanko, M., O'Shea, F., Wade, H., Wood, C., Trounson, A., Healy, D.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Ivermectin for the treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis. Efficacy and adverse reactions. Kumaraswami, V., Ottesen, E.A., Vijayasekaran, V., Devi, U., Swaminathan, M., Aziz, M.A., Sarma, G.R., Prabhakar, R., Tripathy, S.P. JAMA (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Filamentous protein of basal cell epithelioma: characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Kubilus, J., Baden, H.P., McGilvray, N. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Bacterial L-serine dehydratases: a new family of enzymes containing iron-sulfur clusters. Grabowski, R., Hofmeister, A.E., Buckel, W. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Abnormal localisation of gallium-67 citrate in pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. Bowen, P., Lentle, B.C., Jackson, F.I., Percy, J.S., Rigal, W.M. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Idiopathic hypocitraturic calcium-oxalate nephrolithiasis successfully treated with potassium citrate. Pak, C.Y., Fuller, C. Ann. Intern. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Interaction of human hemoglobin and its variants with agar. Winter, W.P., Yodh, J. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and parathormone: effects on isolated osteoclast-like and osteoblast-like cells. Wong, G.L., Luben, R.A., Cohn, D.V. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Cyclic AMP suppresses the inhibition of glycolysis by alternative oxidizable substrates in the heart. Depre, C., Ponchaut, S., Deprez, J., Maisin, L., Hue, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. In-vitro fertilisation of oocytes from women with serum antisperm antibodies. Yovich, J.L., Stanger, J.D., Kay, D., Boettcher, B. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Sodium-coupled transporters for Krebs cycle intermediates. Pajor, A.M. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Oxygen radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis by neutrophils. Critical role of iron and lactoferrin. Vercellotti, G.M., van Asbeck, B.S., Jacob, H.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased atherosclerosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Kunjathoor, V.V., Wilson, D.L., LeBoeuf, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Gallium-67 citrate uptake by cultured tumor cells, stimulated by serum transferrin. Sephton, R.G., Harris, A.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  28. Zinc citrate, human milk, and acrodermatitis enteropathica. Hurley, L.S., Lonnerdal, B., Stanislowski, A.G. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. Protein content of precipitates present in pancreatic juice of alcoholic subjects and patients with chronic calcifying pancreatitis. Guy, O., Robles-Diaz, G., Adrich, Z., Sahel, J., Sarles, H. Gastroenterology (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Titanium (III) citrate as a nontoxic oxidation-reduction buffering system for the culture of obligate anaerobes. Zehnder, A.J., Wuhrmann, K. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of sodium taurocholate on the human gastric mucosa at acid and neutral pH's. Stern, A.I., Hogan, D.L., Isenberg, J.I. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Cloning and expression of Klebsiella pneumoniae genes coding for citrate transport and fermentation. Schwarz, E., Oesterhelt, D. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Comparative studies on the electrical properties of the H+ translocating ATPase and pyrophosphatase of the vacuolar-lysosomal compartment. Hedrich, R., Kurkdjian, A., Guern, J., Flügge, U.I. EMBO J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Selective inhibition of the citrate-to-isocitrate reaction of cytosolic aconitase by phosphomimetic mutation of serine-711. Pitula, J.S., Deck, K.M., Clarke, S.L., Anderson, S.A., Vasanthakumar, A., Eisenstein, R.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Characteristic genome rearrangements in experimental evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dunham, M.J., Badrane, H., Ferea, T., Adams, J., Brown, P.O., Rosenzweig, F., Botstein, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Alternative topogenic signals in peroxisomal citrate synthase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Singh, K.K., Small, G.M., Lewin, A.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Nontransferrin-bound iron uptake by hepatocytes is increased in the Hfe knockout mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis. Chua, A.C., Olynyk, J.K., Leedman, P.J., Trinder, D. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Evidence of a new role for the high-osmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in yeast: regulating adaptation to citric acid stress. Lawrence, C.L., Botting, C.H., Antrobus, R., Coote, P.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Regional citrate anticoagulation for hemodialysis in the patient at high risk for bleeding. Pinnick, R.V., Wiegmann, T.B., Diederich, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  40. Controlled trial of plasma exchange and leukapheresis in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Miller, F.W., Leitman, S.F., Cronin, M.E., Hicks, J.E., Leff, R.L., Wesley, R., Fraser, D.D., Dalakas, M., Plotz, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  41. Gallium citrate Ga 67 scans and aortic prostheses. Perdue, G.D., Smith, R.B., Costantino, M.J. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  42. Isolation of circulating immune complexes using Raji cells. Separation of antigens from immune complexes and production of antiserum. Theofilopoulos, A.N., Eisenberg, R.A., Dixon, F.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  43. Ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumour. Willemsen, W., Kruitwagen, R., Bastiaans, B., Hanselaar, T., Rolland, R. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities