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Gene Review

clpX  -  ATPase and specificity subunit of ClpX...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK0432, JW0428, lopC
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Disease relevance of clpX

  • To elucidate the involvement of proteolysis in the regulation of stationary-phase adaptation, the clpA, clpX, and clpP protease mutants of Escherichia coli were subjected to proteome analysis during growth and during carbon starvation [1].
  • Contrary to lambda plasmid replication, the efficiency of lytic growth of bacteriophage lambda was found to be dependent on the host growth rate in both wild-type bacteria and clpP and clpX mutants [2].
  • In this study, we found that the FliC protein, a major component of flagellar filament, was overproduced in clpXP mutant EHEC, as previously reported for Salmonella [3].

High impact information on clpX

  • The second 46,000-Da component was identified as ClpX (LopC), coded by a gene located in the same operon, but promoter distal to that coding for ClpP (Gottesman, S., Clark, W. P., de Crecy-Lagard, V., and Maurizi, M. R. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 22618-22626) [4].
  • This turnover is dependent on the clpP and clpX genes [5].
  • An open reading frame located upstream of the clpX gene was identified as the tig gene by similarity of its predicted product to other bacterial trigger factors [6].
  • The gene order appears to be clpX lonS hupB, like the organization of the E. coli locus [7].
  • An open reading frame homologous to the E. coli clpX gene was found in front of the lon gene [8].

Biological context of clpX

  • Expression of different-size transcripts from the clpP-clpX operon of Escherichia coli during carbon deprivation [9].
  • The cells carrying clpX alone on a multicopy plasmid successively produced the 46-kDa ClpX protein [10].
  • This decision is influenced specifically by ClpP/ClpX-mediated O degradation and resultant inhibition of early lambda DNA replication because mutations in clpP and clpX genes have little effect on stability of other lambda proteins involved in the regulation of the phage developmental switch [11].
  • Strong suppression of the conditional Rex[Ts] phenotype was imparted by ssrA and clpP (polar for clpX) null mutations, suggesting that RexA or RexB proteins made under conditions of polarity are subject to 10Sa RNA tagging and ClpXP degradation [12].

Associations of clpX with chemical compounds

  • Lethality fixation did progress when protein synthesis was restricted and the cells were incubated in the presence of puromycin or were either clpP or clpX defective [13].


  1. Global role for ClpP-containing proteases in stationary-phase adaptation of Escherichia coli. Weichart, D., Querfurth, N., Dreger, M., Hengge-Aronis, R. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. ClpP/ClpX-mediated degradation of the bacteriophage lambda O protein and regulation of lambda phage and lambda plasmid replication. Wegrzyn, A., Czyz, A., Gabig, M., Wegrzyn, G. Arch. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The GrlR-GrlA regulatory system coordinately controls the expression of flagellar and LEE-encoded type III protein secretion systems in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Iyoda, S., Koizumi, N., Satou, H., Lu, Y., Saitoh, T., Ohnishi, M., Watanabe, H. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation and characterization of ClpX, a new ATP-dependent specificity component of the Clp protease of Escherichia coli. Wojtkowiak, D., Georgopoulos, C., Zylicz, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Dynamic control of Dps protein levels by ClpXP and ClpAP proteases in Escherichia coli. Stephani, K., Weichart, D., Hengge, R. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The Oenococcus oeni clpX homologue is a heat shock gene preferentially expressed in exponential growth phase. Jobin, M.P., Garmyn, D., Diviès, C., Guzzo, J. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. The lonS gene regulates swarmer cell differentiation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Stewart, B.J., Enos-Berlage, J.L., McCarter, L.L. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of the Azospirillum brasilense lon gene: involvement in iron uptake. Mori, E., Fulchieri, M., Indorato, C., Fani, R., Bazzicalupo, M. J. Bacteriol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of different-size transcripts from the clpP-clpX operon of Escherichia coli during carbon deprivation. Li, C., Tao, Y.P., Simon, L.D. J. Bacteriol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. clpX encoding an alternative ATP-binding subunit of protease Ti (Clp) can be expressed independently from clpP in Escherichia coli. Yoo, S.J., Seol, J.H., Kang, M.S., Ha, D.B., Chung, C.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Rapid degradation of bacteriophage lambda O protein by ClpP/ClpX protease influences the lysis-versus-lysogenization decision of the phage under certain growth conditions of the host cells. Czyz, A., Zielke, R., Wegrzyn, G. Arch. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Polarity within pM and pE promoted phage lambda cI-rexA-rexB transcription and its suppression. Hayes, S., Slavcev, R.A. Can. J. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA damage-processing in E. coli: on-going protein synthesis is required for fixation of UV-induced lethality and mutation. Burger, A., Raymer, J., Bockrath, R. DNA Repair (Amst.) (2002) [Pubmed]
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